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 整理 资源来源网络(” Unit 1 Cultural relics Part One: Teaching Design (第一部分:教学设计) Period 1: A sample lesson plan for Reading (IN SEARCH OF THE AMBER ROOM) Aims:榆林教学资源网 To read about cultural relics To learn about The Restrictive and Non-Restrictive Attributive Clause I. Warming up Warming up by defining Good morning, class. This period we are going to read about IN SEARCH OF THE AMBER ROOM. Before our reading, I’d like to know: What kind of old things are cultural relics? Are all the old things cultural relics? What is the definition and classification of cultural relics? To whom do cultural relics belong? Keys for reference: A. Cultural relics are physical remainders of what different peoples valued in the past and continue to value now. It can also be said that cultural relics are more than works of art, they are symbols of history and the people who lived in the past. B. No, not all the old objects are cultural relics. C. Each kind of relics preserves some aspect of cultural heritage and each relic is still a unique cultural expression and contributions. D. In a larger sense, it can be said that all the cultural relics belong to all peoples and whole societies, not a certain individual. Warming up by presenting Hi, everyone. Let’s look at the screen. I’ll present you some pictures. They all belong to cultural relics. Some of them are cultural sites. Some of them are natural sites. Please think these over: Can you name them out? Who have the right to confirm and classify them? Keys for reference: A. They are cultural sites: The Great wall; The Imperial Palace of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Beijing and Shenyang; The Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor and the Terracotta Warriors; The Mogao Cave. These are natural sites: The Jiu Zhai Gou Valley Scenic and Historic Interest Area; The Huang Long Scenic and Histioric Interest Area. The following are cultural and natural sites: Mount Taishan; Mount Huangshan; Mount WuYi. B. Only an international professional organization from UN has the authority to confirm and classify them. Warming up by discussing Now, boys and girls, I met a “moral dilemma”. That means I must make a choice between the interests of the family and the interests of the society. Things are like this: My old granny happened to find an ancient vase under the tree in the earth of our garden. It’s so beautiful and special. Now, my family fell into a moral dilemma. Can you help us to make a decision: A: What should we do? B: Can we keep it for ourselves or report it to the government? C: Have you come across such a situation — to make a difficult choice? Keys: ABC questions can be answered in all kinds of ways. The answers are flexible. II. Pre-reading 1. Looking and saying Work in pairs. Look at the photos on the screen. All these relics are quite beautiful. But some of them were lost and ruined in history,such as Yuan MingYuan and the Amber Room. Please guess: What kinds of things can result in their disappearing? Why do they come into being once again? Keys for reference: A. Maybe wars, natural disasters, and time have damaged or destroyed them, getting them lost and changed. Many of them were even stolen and hidden while nobody knows who, where and how. B. People get to know these. If these relics could not be found again, they would be rebuilt by people. 2. Explaining and sharing Work in groups of four. Tell your group mates: What do you know about the substance of “amber”? What do you know about the cultural relics “the Amber Room”? Keys for reference: I am from group 2. From the knowledge we got from biology and chemistry, we know “amber” is a semi-precious stone used in jewelry and art world. Amber is really the fossil form of resin from trees. It has got its shape after a process that has taken millions of years to complete. Trees in very ancient forests produced this resin, which slowly dropped from trees and was buried. Trees use resin to protect themselves from disease and harm caused by insects and fungi. I am from group 6. From the information of history legends and news reports, we know the Amber Room is a room built by lots of ambers. It was a gift given to Peter the Great, the King of Russia, by the King of Prussia, Frederick William I. It was given the name because almost thousand tons of natural ambers were used to make it. But during the second world war in 1941, the Nazi German army secretly stole the Amber Room and sent boxes of the Amber Room on a train to a German city. After that, what really happened to the Amber Room remains a mystery. III. Reading榆林教学资源网 1. Reading aloud to the recording Now please listen and read aloud to the recording of the text IN SEARCH OF THE AMBER ROOM. Pay attention to the pronunciation of each word and the pauses within each sentence. I will play the tape twice and you shall read aloud twice, too. 2. Skimming and identifying the general idea of each paragraph Now please skim the text to get the key words and general idea of each paragraph. 1st paragraph the introduction about the Amber Room: design, colour, shape, material 2nd paragraph the present to the Czar: a part of winter palace in St. Petersburg, a reception hall for important visitor 3rd Paragraph the relocating of the Amber Room in Catherir Ⅱ times: moved into Summer Palace, more added to its design 4th Paragraph the missing of the Amber Room: the two countries were at war, Nazi German army stole the Amber Room, 27 wooden boxes were trained to a German city, Nobody knew it from then on 5th Paragraph the rebuilding of the Amber Room: a new one but the same as the old built by the two countries, for celebrating the 300th birthday of Peterburg 3.Scanning and analyzing the characteristics of the text. Since you have got to know the general ideas of each paragraph, can you tell me the characteristics of the passage, such as, the type of writing, the way of narrating, and the tense? Keys for reference: This piece of passage is a narrative prose or non-fiction article written in a narrating style. It tells the history of Amber Room in the order of time so that we can clearly learn about what happened to it. The tense used in the text is past tense. 4.Reading and understanding Next you are to read and underline all the useful expressions or collocations in the passage. Copy them to your notebook after class as homework. Collocations from IN SEARCH OF THE AMBER ROOM look into…, be used to…, make the design for the room, in fact, as a gift of…, add more details to…, remove… from the search for…,belong to…, feel as hard as stone, the fancy style, be made for…, in return, one of the great wonders, art objects, look much like…, give the name, be made into any shape, be made with gold and jewels, be made to be a gift, serve as…, at war, remain a mystery, be ready for… 5. Reading and transferring information Read the text again to complete the table, which lists all the numbers in the text. NUMBER MEANING 1716 Frederic William gave the Amber Room to Peter the Great as a gift. 1770 Catherine Ⅱ had completed the adding to the Amber Room in this year. 1941 The Nazi German army stole the Amber Room in this year. 2003 The rebuilding of the Amber Room was completed in this year. 7000 Tons The total weight of the ambers used to make the room. 55 The number of soldiers given to the king of Russia in return. 600 The number of the candles lighting the Amber Room. 2 The two countries: German and Russia. 2 In two days the Amber Room was removed to a German city. 100,000 The Amber Room was dismantled into 100,000 pieces 27 27 wooden boxes were used to contain the pieces of Amber Room. 300th The newly rebuilt Amber Room was ready for the 300th birthday of St Peterburg city 6.Reading and learning Read the text and learn more about the following proper nouns. You can surf on the website after class: Names of people Names of places Frederick Ⅰ Prussia Frederick William Ⅰ St.Peterburg Peter the Great Konigsberg Catherine Ⅱ Winter Palace Summer Palace Ⅳ Closing down榆林教学资源网 Closing down by doing exercises To end the lesson you are to do the comprehending exercises No. 1 and No. 2. Closing down by having a discussion Can you imagine the fate of the Amber Room? What is it? Do you think if it is worthwhile to reproduce the Amber Room? Why? Keys for reference: A. I have no idea about the fate of the Amber Room. Because anything can happen to it. Maybe it was destroyed at war in the fighting fire. You see, ambers can be melted easily. Maybe it was kept secretly by somebody who had died without telling about it to anyone else. So maybe it is lying somewhere quietly. B. I think it is worthwhile to reproduce the Amber Room. Because it represents the culture and a period of history in St. Petersburg. It is a trace and feature surviving from a past age and serving to remind people of a lost time. Closing down by retelling the story of the Amber Room Well, all of us have learned the history of the Amber Room. Let’s recall some key words and expressions on the board. You are to retell the story of the Amber Room: Colour Style Shape owner present move to winter palace add to more details remove to pieces put on trains remain a mystery 300th birthday Period 2: A lesson plan for Learning about Language (The Restrictive and Non-Restrictive Attributive Clause) Aims: To learn about the restrictive and non-restrictive attributive clause To discover some useful words and expressions To discover some useful structures Procedures: I. Warming up Warming up by discovering useful words and expressions Please turn to page 3. Do exercises 1, 2, 3 and 4 first. Please check your answers against your classmates’. Warming up by explaining Now, class, since you’ve read the passage, could you explain to me how to use the phrase “belong to”? The word “to” here is a preposition, indicating the possession, and is always followed by nouns or pronoun. Look at Ex 3. The preposition “at” indicates a state, condition or continuous activity. So we can replace them or express them by using a present-continuous tense. II. Learning about Attributive Clause 1. What is an adjective Clause? An adjective clause is a dependent clause which takes the place of an adjective in another clause or phrase. Like an adjective, an adjective clause modifies a noun or pronoun, answering questions like “which?” or “what kind of?” Consider the following examples: Adjective the red coat Adjective clause the coat which I bought yesterday Like the word “red” in the first example, the dependent clause “which I bought yesterday” in the second example modifies the noun “coat.” Note that an adjective clause usually comes after what it modifies, while an adjective usually comes before. In formal writing, an adjective clause begins with the relative pronouns “who(m),” “that,” or “which.” In informal writing or speech, you may leave out the relative pronoun when it is not the subject of the adjective clause, but you should usually include the relative pronoun in formal, academic writing: informal The books people read were mainly religious. formal The books that people read were mainly religious. informal Some firefighters never meet the people they save. formal Some firefighters never meet the people whom they save. Here are some more examples of adjective clauses: the meat which they ate was tainted This clause modifies the noun “meat” and answers the question “which meat?”. They’re talking about the movie which made him cry This clause modifies the noun “movie” and answers the question “which movie?”. They are searching for the student who borrowed the book The clause modifies the pronoun “student” and answers the question “which student?”. Did I tell you about the author whom I met? The clause modifies the noun “author” and answers the question “which author?”. 2. Restrictive & non restrictive clauses Do the following pairs of sentences mean the same thing? 1a My uncle, who lives in London, is very rich. 2b My uncle who lives in London is very rich. 2a The policies, which were unpopular, were rejected by the voters. 2b The policies which were unpopular were rejected by the voters. 3a My niece, whose husband is out of work, will inherit the house, which I have always treasured. 3b My niece whose husband is out of work will inherit the house which I have always treasured. The first sentence in each pair has a non-restrictive clause within two commas, and the second has a restrictive clause. A non-restrictive clause simply adds more information into the sentence and does not affect the meaning of the main clause: it is therefore bracketed off with commas (1a = an uncle who happens to live in London). Conversely, a restrictive clause defines its referent in the main clause more specifically and contributes significantly to the meaning of the sentence. Thus it is that particular uncle who lives in London who is referred to (1b). In 2a, all policies were unpopular and all were rejected, whereas in 2b only the policies that were unpopular were rejected. Note that in restrictive clauses the non-human relative pronoun is either ‘that’ or ‘which’, whereas for human referents the relative pronoun can be either ‘who/m’ or ‘that’ (the man that/whom I will marry ....). 3. A test on FORMAL ADJECTIVE CLAUSES Directions: Combine the sentences. Use formal written English. Use (b) as an adjective clause. Punctuate carefully. 1) (a) An antecedent is a word. (b) A pronoun refers to this word. An antecedent ____ 2) (a) The blue whale is considered the largest animal that has ever lived.(b) It can grow to 100 feet and 150 tons. The blue whale ____ 3) (a) The plane was met by a crowd of 300. (b) Some of them had been waiting for more than 4 hours. The plane ____ 4) (a) In this paper, I will describe the basic process.(b) Raw cotton becomes cotton thread by this process. In this paper, I will describe ____ 5) (a) The researchers are doing case studies of people to determine the importance of heredity in health and longevity.(b) These people’s families have a history of high blood pressure and heart disease. The researchers are doing case studies ____ 6) (a) At the end of this month, scientists at the institute will conduct their AIDS research. (b) The results of this research will be published within 6 months. At the end of this month, scientists ____ 7) (a) According to many education officials, ‘math phobia’(that is, a fear of mathematics) is a widespread problem. (b) A solution to this problem must and can be found. According to many education officials, ‘math phobia’ ____ 8) (a) The art museum hopes to hire a new administrator. (b) Under this person’s direction it will be able to purchase significant pieces of art. The art museum ____ 9) (a) The giant anteater licks up ants for its dinner. (b) Its tongue is longer than 30 centimeters (12 inches). The giant anteater ____ 10) (a) The anteater’s tongue is sticky. (b) It can go in and out of its mouth 160 times a minute. The anteater’s tongue ____ III. Closing down by taking a quiz Quiz on Attributive clause Select one answer from the choices provided after each sentence. The words you choose should fit the blank in the sentence. Don’t use the HINT buttons unless you really need them. 1. As many children came were given some cakes. A. that B. as C. who D. whom 2. The visitors saw rows of houses the roofs are red. A. on which B. of which C. where D. that 3. I usually take a nap after lunch, is my habit. A. which it B. as it C. as D. that 4. Please tell me the way you did the job. A. how B. where C. which D. in which 5 Is this museum some German friends visited the day before yesterday? A. the one B. which C. that D. where 6. The farmer uses wood to build a house to store grain. A. in which B. where C. that D. with which 7. I shall never forget the years I spent in the country with the farmers, has a great effect on my life. A. when, which B. that, which C. when, that D. which, that 8. Little has been done is helpful to our work. A. that B. what C. which D. all that 9. Perhaps this is the only market you can get such cheap goods. A. that B. of which C. by which D. where 10. We’ll put off the outing until next week, __ we won’t be so busy. A. when B. which C. at which D. in that Key: 1~10:BBCDA ABADA Period 3: A lesson plan for using language Aims: To learn to tell facts from opinions To write a reply letter To listen and speak about cultural relics Procedures I. Warming up Warming up by questions Morning, class. We always say, “We must respect facts and can’t wholly depend on one’s opinions”. But can you tell me: What does it mean when you say, “It is a fact”? What does it mean when you say, “It is an opinion”? Keys for reference: A fact must be real, objective and without any personal judgment. So it can be proved. B. An option always expresses one’s own ideas. It is always subjunctive. So it has not been proved. Warming up by questioning Turn to page 5. Read the passage and tell me: If you want to go in for law against somebody, and if you want to win, what’s the most important thing you should do first? What makes a judge decide which eyewitnesses to believe and which not to believe. Keys for reference: A. Searching for facts of course. The more, the better. B. The evidences offered by the eyewitnesses make the judge decide which one is believable and which is not. II. Guided reading Reading and defining Read the passage and define: What is a fact? What is an opinion? What is an evidence? 2. Reading and translating Read the passage and translate it into Chinese paragraph by paragraph. Tom, you are to do paragraph 1, please… 3. Reading and underlining Next you are to read and underline all the useful expressions or collocations in the part. Copy them to your notebook after class as homework. Collocation from Using Language on page 5 in a trial, rather than, …more than…, to tell the truth, agree with, It can be proved that …, no reason to lie, a reply to a letter, think highly of, search for, return the treasure to, cost them a lot of time and money 4. Listening Now, boys and girls, as we know, people have never stopped searching for the Amber Room. This time we’ll listen to what three people say they know about the missing Amber Room. Before we listen to them, I’ll present some related new words to you to help you understand them easily. Please look at the screen and read after me. explode vt. 爆炸, Czch n. 捷克, mayor n. 市长, melt vt. 熔化, sub (sub marine) n. 潜水艇,水雷, survivor n. 幸存者, Titanic n. 泰坦尼克船 5. Sharing and Correcting Well done. Now share your forms with your partner and tell me in the three forms: What are facts? What are opinions? Li Ming, do you want a try? Keys: What they heard, saw, did are facts. And what they believe are opinions. 6. Reviewing We often use some expressions to ask for opinions. What are they? Oh, yes. What do you think of …? Do you believe …? How can you be sure of …? How do you know that? And we often use some expressions to give opinions. What are they? Ok, Tom, Please. Oh, yes. They are: I think… / I don’t think… I don’t agree that… / I suppose that… 7. Discussing Please look at exercise 3, and discuss which person gave the best evidence. Use the expressions above to help you. Before we discuss, let’s deal with the following discussion: What is the best evidence? How can we know which eyewitness is most believable? Keys: A. The best evidence is factual and is given by a person who is believable. B. The most believable eyewitness is the one who has nothing to gain from telling a lie. Well done. Let’s come to the discussion “Which person gave the best evidence?” Keys fore reference: Jan Hasek is less believable because he owns a little restaurant near the mine. If the search stopped, his business would suffer. Hans Braun is also less believable because he is working for a company trying to find the ship which carried the treasures in the Baltic sea. Of the three eyewitnesses, only Anna Petrov has no selfish reason for saying what she has said. In particular, she is not involved in any current effort to find the treasure. Therefore she is the most believable. 8. Reading and writing Sometimes we may fall into or face a moral choice. That is a moral dilemma. Let’s read the letter on page 7 and see what’s Johann’s choice and opinion. Ok, finished? Now answer the following questions: What’s Johann’s opinion about the Amber Room? What’s his father’s opinion about the things found by him? What happened to Johann when she was a pupil? Keys: Johann thinks the people who find the Amber Room should keep it for them own. His father thinks as Johann does. She found a little money and kept it to himself. 9. Completing the letters A & B and then giving your own letters ·When you write your letter, you may choose to agree or not agree with the writer. ·You must give a reason why you agree or don’t agree with the writer. ·Be sure to give an example from your own life so that the reader can better understand your opinion. Ⅲ Closing down Closing down by a debating There is a long ancient wall around a less developed town. It is reported it has a long history, dating back to over 5 century BC. The local government is collecting money to repair and rebuild the wall. It has cost a lot of money. Some of your classmates think it is not worth. Some think it’s a good way to develop the local economy. Now Group 1 and 2 against Group 3 and 4. Let’s have the debating. Closing down by dictation ·The design for the room was of the fancy style popular in those days. ·The room served as a small reception hall for important visitors. ·The man who found the relics insist that it belongs to his family. ·The room was completed the way she wanted it . ·It was ready for the people of St. Petersburg to celebrate the 300th birthday of their city. ·After that, what really happened to the Amber Room remains a mystery. ·In a trial, a judge must decide which eyewitnesses to believe and which not to believe. ·Is it something that more than one person believes? ·A fact is anything that can be proved. ·An opinion is what someone believes is true but has not been proved. Part Two: Teaching Resources (教学资源) Section 1: A text structure analysis of IN SEARCH OF THE AMBER ROOM I. Type of writing and summary of the idea Type of writing This is a piece of narrative writing. Main idea of the passage The history of the Amber Room General idea of 1st Para The simple description of the Amber Room General idea of 2nd Para The present sent to the Czar General idea of 3rd Para The detail adding and relocating of the Amber Room General idea of 4th Para The stolen of the Amber Room in World War Ⅱ General idea of 5th Para The rebuilding of the Amber Room II. A tree diagram The Amber Room: the best and biggest work of country’s best Prussian artists P ara.1 In 1716, the Amber Room given to the Czar as a gift Para. 2 In 1770, the Amber Room redecorated by Catherine II Para.2 In 1941 the Amber Room stolen by the Nazi German army Para. 4 The old missing Amber Room being searched for; a new Amber Room having been built Para. 5 Section 2: Background information on culture relics I. What is a culture relic? 何谓 “文化遗产”? Cultural relics are physical reminders of what different peoples valued in the past and continue to value now. Without these relics, we could not cherish cultural traditions as much or appreciate the lives of the people who practiced those traditions. Although we may not often consider it, cultural relics are not only the possession of one culture. In a larger sense, it can be said that they belong to all peoples. For these reasons, this unit describes cultural relics not from China but other places. Looking at it from another angle, it can also be said that cultural relics preserves some aspect of cultural heritage and each relic, regardless of whether the same hands created many examples of it, is still a unique cultural expression and contribution. II. The cultural relics of China in the world heritage site list《世界文化遗产名录》中的30处中国文遗产 本单元的主题是“文化遗产”,学生很可能已经亲身接触过当地的文化遗产,或是能过电视、报纸等媒体对此有了一定的了解,因此,在课前教师可让学生列举国内外著名的文化遗产,然后对“文化遗产”给出定义、分类或划分标准。到2004年底,我国已有30处文物古迹和自然景观被联合国科教文组织世界遗产委员会列入《世界遗产名录》,以下是这些文化遗产的名称、性质和列人《世界遗产名录》的年份: ◆Mount Taishan(泰山),listed as a world cultural and natural site in 1987. ◆The Great Wall(长城),cultural site, 1987. ◆The Imperial Palace of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Beijing and Shenyang(北京故宫、沈阳故宫),cultural site, 1987,2004. ◆The Mogao Caves(敦煌莫高窟),cultural site,1987. ◆The Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor and the Terracotta Warriors(泰始皇陵及兵马俑坑),cultural site,1987. ◆The Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian(周口店北京猿人遗址),cultural site,1987. ◆Mount Huangshan(黄山),cultural and natural site,1990. ◆The Jiuzhaigou Valley Scenic and Historic Interest Area(九寨沟风景名胜区),natural site,1992. ◆The Huanglong Scenic and Historic Interest Area(黄龙风景名胜区),natural site,1992. ◆The Wulingyuan Scenic and Historic Interest Area (武陵源风景名胜区),natural site,1992. ◆The Mountain Resort and its Outline Temple, Chengde(河北承德避暑山庄及周围寺庙),cultural site,1994. ◆The Temple and Cemeter of Confucius and the Kong Family Mansion in Qufu (曲阜孔府、孔庙、孔林),cultural site,1994. ◆The Ancient Building Complex in the Wudang Mountains(武当山古建筑群),cultural site,1994. ◆Historic Ensemble of the Potala Palace, Lhasa(西藏布达拉宫),cultural site,1994. ◆The Lushan National Park(庐山),cultural site,1996. ◆Mount Emei and the Leshan Giant Buddha Scenic Area(峨眉山一乐山大佛风景名胜区),cultural and natural site.1996. ◆The Ancient City of Pingyao(平遥古城),cultural site,1997. ◆The Classical Gardens of Suzhou(苏州园林),cultural site,1997. ◆The Old Town of Lijiang(丽江古城),cultural site,1997. ◆The Summer Palace(颐和园),cultural site,1998. ◆The Temple of heaven:an Imperial Sacrificial Altar in Beijing(天坛),cultural site,1998. ◆Dazu Rock Carvings(大足石刻),cultural site, 1999. ◆Mount Wuyi(武夷山),cultural and natural site,1999. ◆Mount Qincheng and the Dujiangyan Irrigation System(青城山一都江堰),cultural site,2000. ◆Aucient Villages in Southern Anhui—Xidi and Hongcun(安徽古村落一西递、宏村),cultural site,2000. ◆Longmen Grottoes(龙门石窟),cultural site,2000. ◆Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties(明清皇家陵寝),cultural site 2000. ◆Yungang Grottoes(云冈石窟),cultural site,2001. ◆Three Parallel Rivers of Yunan Protected Areas,natural site(三江并流),2003. ◆Capital cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom(高句丽的王城、王陵和贵族墓葬),cultural site,2004. Section 3: Words and expressions from Unit I Cultural Relics cultural adj. 文化的 a cultural independence / cultural exchange relic n. sth. old that reminds us of the past遗迹;古物 unearthed cultural / a relic of early civilization survive vt.&vi. to continue to live, esp. after coming close to death; to continue to live after…幸免于;幸存;……之后还活着 survive the traffic accident / survive all her children remain vi. 1. to stay or be left behind after others have gone or been removed停留;留居;留下When the others had gone, Mary remained and put back the furniture.2. to continue to be( in an unchanged state)继续;依然remain young / remain to be uncompleted; Peter became a judge but John remained a fisherman. If you won’t eat you’ll just have to remain hungry! 3. It remains to be seen: we shall know later on.情况仍未明,要看怎样发展。 state n. 国家;政府;州;状态 state schools / state documents /in a poor state of health look into: to examine the meaning or causes of考察,调查 look into the matter / look into the event rare adj. 稀罕的;稀有的;珍贵的 the rare air of the mountains / rare metals / a rare book dynasty n. 朝代;王朝 the Qing Dynasty / the Tudor dynasty in England belong to to be the property of; to be a member of; to be connected with属于;为……的一员;与……有关系belong to a club / belong to a class / belong to me in search of 寻找 in search of the cure to the disease / in search of the lost boy amber n. adj. 琥珀;琥珀制的;琥珀色的 the amber traffic lights / a decoration of amber gift n. 赠品;礼物;天赋 birthday gifts / gift vouchers / a gift for music melt vt. vi. (使)融化;(使)熔化 melt the snow / melt the anger /melt in water heat n. vt. 热;热度;把……加热;使激动 the body heat/ the heat of a debate/ heat soup for lunch design n. a plan in the mind; a drawing or pattern showing how sth. is to be made设计;图案 vt. to imagine and plan out in the mind设计;构思 curious in design / make a design for a monument; design an engine / design dresses for a queen fancy adj.奇特的;异样的(无最高级和比较级)vt.想象;设想;爱好 a fancy price / fancy goods / fancy his coming /fancy herself still young style n.风格;风度;类型 do things in style / in the style of / out of style. jewel;宝石 precious jewels / a jewel necklace in return(for): in exchange (for); in payment (for)作为交换;报答;酬谢 in return for her kindness / in return for his gilt light vt. vi 点火,照亮 light a cigarette / light a torch/ light sb. on his way mirror n. 镜子;反映 a driving mirror / look in the mirror/ a mirror of the times wonder n. 奇迹;惊奇 the wonders of nature/ It’s no wonder. /in wonder at war 处于交战状态 be at war / have been at war for long remove vt. to take away(from a place); take off移动;脱掉;除去remove the cloth from the table / remove one’s hat; You’ve got to remove your shoes before you enter the room. furniture n.家具(总称)much furniture / a lot of furniture /a set of furniture/ a piece of furniture secretly adv.秘密地;背地里 have a talk secretly/ take an action secretly wooden adj. 木制的 a wooden bridge/ a wooden chair doubt n. 怀疑;疑惑;vt.怀疑;不信 there is no doubt about sb./ sth./ no doubt/ …not doubt that / …doubt whether mystery n.神秘;神秘的事物 make a mystery of matter / dive into the mysteries of apart adv. 分离;分别地 miles apart / stand apart / keep apart from take apart 拆开 take apart the machine / take sb. apart trial n.审判;审问;试验 hold a trial / trial by a military court / give sb. a trial consider vt.1. to think about; examine考虑;思考I’m considering changing my job. We’ve decided to move and are considering a new house in Beijing. 2. to regard as认为I consider you a fool. I consider it a great honour to be here with you today. The boss considered Tom (to be) too lazy to be a good worker. 3. to take into account顾及;考虑到;If you consider (the fact) that she’s only been studying English a year, she speaks it very well. opinion n.意见;看法;判断 give one’s opinion / in one’s opinion / depend on one’s opinion evidence n.根据;证据;证物 evidence for his guilt/ call sb. for evidence/ material evidence/ verbal evidence prove vt. 证明;证实 vi. 原来是;证明是 prove its truth / prove sb to be / be proved to be pretend vt.假装;装扮 pretend to be / pretend that think highly of 看重;器重 think highly of his deeds / think highly of his character treasure n.财宝;财富;珍品 a store of hidden treasure / collect many treasures besides adv. in addition, also此外;而且I don’t want to go; besides, I’m tired. I met some friends and other people besides. I don’t like those blue socks; what have you got besides? prep. as well as; in addition to除……之外 I have a few friends besides you. There were three others present at the meeting besides Mr. Day. Unit 2 The Olympic Games Part One: Teaching Design (第一部分:教学设计) Period 1: A lesson plan for reading (AN INTERVIEW) Aims To talk about the history of the Olympics games To read an interview about the Olympic Games Procedures I. Warming up Warming up by sharing Morning, everyone! Today we are going to learn about THE OLYMPIC GAMES. But first, I’d like to know how much you know about the Olympics to be held in Beijing. Anything about it is ok. Oh, Li Lei, do you want a try?…Right. You know so much about the Olympics. Toady, we’ll learn more about it in ancient Greece. Warming up by describing Now, boys and girls. I’ll show you a video show of the 28th Olympic Games. Please tell me what it is about and describe it to the class. Ok, Wang Lin, please describe it. Wonderful. That’s Liu Xiang. The hurdle king! Warming up by discussing Hi, class. You know our country is trying her best to prepare for the 2008 Olympic Games. Every one is expecting and excited about it. Let’s discuss what we can do for it. And imagine what we will do at the 2008 Olympics. II. Pre-reading 1. Asking and answering Now, please read the three questions before the Reading. Let’s do it in turn. Let’s begin from the first row here…ok, you did a good job. Let’s summarize your answers. For reference: 1. In Summer Olympics, there are running, swimming, shooting, wrestling, jumping, football, basketball, volleyball, table tennis, throwing, Javelin, weight lifting, gymnastics, boxing etc. In winter Olympics, there are skiing skating, ice hockey, ski jumping, sledding, snowboarding etc. 2. The 29th Olympic Games will be held in Beijing on Auguster 18th, 2008. 3. To hold the Olympic Games is a rich prize for a country. And it can make a country known in the world. It can stimulate the country’s economy, and help to speed up its development. 2. Imaging and introducing Please look at the three pictures in the reading. Please talk about them. Imagine whatever you can. For reference: The first picture is the status of a great Greek. His name is Pausanias. He was a famous traveler and writer in the second century AD. His Guide to Greece is an extremely comprehensive guidebook for tourists, concentrating on buildings, tombs and status and including a lot of information on the mythological, religious and historical background to the monuments described. It is so informative that it may be called the foundation of classical archaeology and this ancient Baedeker is still used as a guide to classical Greece. Can you remember a famous ancient Chinese traveler and writer? He also wrote a book. Yes, his name is Xu Shake. His works is The Notes of Xu Shake’s travels. The second picture is the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games. Maybe this is the principle stadium. It’s large and can hold thousands of audience. The third picture is a Chinese athlete named Yang Yang. She won a gold medal for China in the 2002 winter Olympic Games. She is a famous skating player. 3. Talking and Sharing We know there are many differences and similarities about the ancient and modern Olympics. Do you know anything about them? You can simply guess. Yes, Lucy, try … III. Reading 1. Reading aloud to the recording and finding the general idea Now please listen and read aloud to the recording of the text AN INTERVIEW. Pay attention to the pronunciation and intonation as well as the pauses within each sentence. Then try to get the general idea of the passage. Have you got the main idea? Yes, it tells us the differences and the similarities between the ancient and modern Olympics. 2. Reading and acting Now let’s play the parts of the Greek writer Pausanias and the Chinese girl Li Li. Now boys, you are Pausanias; girls, you are Li Li. Please pay attention to the bold words. 3. Reading and finding Now read the text again. The boys shall try to finish the task: What was the ancient Olympics like? The girls shall try to finish the task: What is the modern Olympics like? 4. Reading and collecting information Ok, now let’s read it silently. First let’s talk about the same points between the ancient and modern Olympics. Who can answer? Any volunteers? Then let’s come to the differences. The similarities Both are held every four years. Both are held not for money but for honour. The beliefs are the same. They are: Swifter, Higher, and stronger. Men are allowed to take part both in ancient and modern Olympics. Some events are the same, such as running, jumping, shooting and thowing. The Differences There were not winter Olympics in the past. Now competitors are from all over the world. But in the ancient time, only the people in Greece could take part. Only men were allowed to take part in the past, now woman are also allowed. In the past, winners got the olive wreath as the prize. Now competitors compete for medals. The events and athletes in modern time are more than those in the past. There is a special village for the competitors to live in, a stadium for competitions, a gymnasium for these who watch the games now. But there were not in the past.) 5. Reading and underlining Next you are to read and underline all the useful expressions or collocations in the passage. Copy them to your notebook after class as homework. Collocations from AN INTERVIEW take part in…, gold medals, the spirit of…, be held, in order to, host the Olympic Games, on a magical journey, find out, the present day Olympic Games, used to, write about…, come to your time, be admitted as…, two sets of…, enjoy competing in…, compete against…, for the honour of…, reach the standard, be admitted to…, play a very important role, as well as, a stadium for competitions, as a matter of fact, compete for…, olive wreath, feel proud of…, make… happy Ⅳ Closing down Closing down by doing exercise To end the lesson you are to do the comprehending exercises 1 & 2. Closing down by discussing You know our government has tried its best to compete for hosting the 29th Olympic Games. It has cost a lot of money. Do you think it is worthwhile? Why? For reference: It is worthwhile to host the Olympic Games. To host Olympic Games can make our country known to the whole world. To host Olympic Games can make our culture and people understood by the other peoples. To host Olympic Games can stimulate the developing of our economy. Closing by imagining Imagine what we will do and what we can do for the 29th Olympic Games now. For reference: Maybe we can serve as volunteers to help the foreign visitors and athletes from all over the world. So at present we should study hard. Especially we should try our best to learn English well. Closing down by narrating We can see the text is written in a conversational style. And there are two speakers. One is Pausanias, a Greek writer 2000 years ago, the other is Li Li, a Chinese girl. Now let’s change it into a narrative style. In other words, let’s describe the ancient and modern Olympic Games in our own words. Who would like to have a try? For reference: The ancient Olympic Games began in Greece and were held from 776 B.C. to A.D.393. It was held every four years. At that time, there were not so many sports as today. And women were not allowed to take part in the games. There were not Winter Olympics at that time. Winners got the olive wreath as the prize. The motto was swifter, higher and stronger. The modern Olympic Games began in 1891. They’re held every four years. There are many new sports in the Olympics. In the summer Olympics there are over 250 different sports. Women are not only allowed to join in but also play a very important role. Now the competitors compete for medals. The motto is swifter, higher and stronger. Closing down by summarizing As we have finished the passage we’ll sum up what we have learned. First let’s see the writing skills. It is written in a conversational style. It’s in a very interesting way. It adopts a dialogue between Pausanias who lived 2000 years ago and a Chinese gird in modern world. Through their dialogue, the differences and similarities between the ancient and modern Olympic Games are made known to the readers. Just because it is in a conversational style, there are quite a few oral spoken English and elliptical phrases. Through the comparison between the ancient and modern Olympic Games, we have learned the differences and the similarities between them. Now we can have a deep understanding of the Games. From the passage, we can have a deep understanding of the Games. From the passage, we can also get to know that the Olympic Games are developing and improving. It’s our duty to make the Olympic Games better and healthier. We know that one of the slogans for 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is Green Olympic Games. It shows that people are paying more and more attention to our environment. Period 2: A lesson plan for Learning about Language (The Future Passive Voice) Aims: To learn about future passive voice To discover useful words and expressions To learn the methods of words formation Procedures I. Warming up Warming up by dictating There are several important sentences in this unit. Let’s dictate them. If you can’t, learn them by heart after class. When and where will the next Olympic Games be held? I live in what you call “Ancient Greece” and / used to write about the Olympic Games more than 2000 years ago. All countries can take part if they reach the standard to be admitted to the games. The next Olympic Games will be held in my hometown. It is just as much a competition among countries to host the Olympics as to win an Olympic medal. Warming up by discovering useful words and expressions Turn to page 11 and do exercises 1, 2, 3 and 5 first. Check your answers against your classmates’. II. Learning about word formation 1. Do exercise 4 and discover the rules. Turn to page 12 and find out the rules of word formation. By adding -ing to a verb, we can change the verb into a noun. That means we can change “doing some sport” into “the name of the sport”. By adding -er to a verb, we can change the verb into a noun. That means we can change “doing some sport” into “the person who does the sport”. 2. Means of word-formation in general Affixation, conversion, and composition (or compounding) are the chief means of word-formation in English. Besides these, there are also other minor ways of word-formation including clipping, acronymy, blending etc. III. Learning about Present Future Passive Voice Turn to page 13 and do exercise 3. And tell the class the formation of present future passive voice. For reference: Well done, class. We can follow the following formlation to turn the future tenses into future passive voice; be going to be done, be about to be done, be to be done, will / shall be done, would / should be done. Ⅳ Closing down by summarizing 1.Present future passive voice (take “ask” for example) Affirmative Negative Interrogative I You He/she/it will be asked We will (shall) You/They will I You He/she/it will not be asked We will (shall) not You / They will not W ill (shall) I Will you Will he/she/it be asked Will (shall) we Will you / they 2.The passive Voice of phrasal verb Generally speaking, only transitive verbs can form the passive voice, for only transitive verbs can be followed by objects. But many intransitive verbs together with some prepositions and adverbs can be used as transitive verbs. So they can also be followed by the objects. Therefore they can also be used in passive voice. But note that all the phrasal verbs are used as a whole. When using them in passive voice, we cannot drop out the prepositions and adverbs. For examples: A t last they put out the fire. At last the fire was put out. T hey will put up a notice on the wall. A notice will be put up on the wall. H ave you sent for a doctor? Has the doctor been sent for? I have never heard of such a thing before. Such a thing has never been heard of before. W e must take good care of the children here. The children must be taken good care of here. H is classmates laughed at him for the foolish mistake. He was laughed at for the foolish mistake by his classmates. Period 3: A lesson plan for using language Aims: To read about the ancient Olympic Games To listen and talk about hobbies To write about hobbies Procedures 1. Warming up Warming up by introducing Hi! Class. You know Greece is the world-known country with an ancient civilization. It has a long history with so much marvelous culture. The Greeks had wonderful stories about the Gods and Goddnesses who were part of their religion. They believed that these god or goddesses would help humans if they felt sorry for them or if the humans were good people. However, the Gods did not always help. They behaved like people who were unpredictable and capricious. To try to get the support of the Gods people had to pray to them and offer them present. In this story the Goddess Hera, the wife of the chief God, Zeus was sorry for Hippomenes and agreed to help him. Warming up by sharing Now, boys and girls. Is there anybody who can tell us some Greek mythology. You know they are so famous in human history. Or can you speak out some names of Greek Gods and Goddesses. Prometeus 普罗米修斯 —— a son of the former chief God Sphinx斯芬克斯 —— a being with a human face but a lion body Pandora 潘多拉—— a beautiful girl with every ill and evil thought and deed Zeus宙斯—— the chief God who governed the world Hera 天后—— the wife of Zeus who governed the love Ⅱ. Guided reading 1. Reading and judging Read the text THE STORY OF ATLANTA, and complete the True or False guestions after the text on page14. 2. Reading and answering Read the text again, and answer the following questions. A. What was Atlanta’s problem? B. What were Atlanta’s rules? C. What was Hippomenes’ amazement? D. What made Hippomenes change his mind? E. Whom did Hippomenes turn to for help? F. Can you guess what was the ending? For reference: A. Atlanta could run faster than any men in Greece. But she was not allowed to run in the Olympic Games. B. She promised to be married to a man who could run faster than her. If he could not run as fast as her, he would be killed. C. Hipppomenes could not understand why so many young men wanted to risk their lives. D. Atlanta’s beauty made him understand his amazement and change his mind. E. He turned to the Goddess of love for help. F. Hippomenes was killed because of losing his race. G. He ran faster than Atlanta and married her. 3. Reading and underlining Next you are to read and underline all the useful expressions or collocations in the passage. Copy them to your notebook after class as homework. Collocations from THE STORY OF ATLANA be allowed to, run against…, will be pardoned, hear of…,be amazed, as fast as…, change one’s mind, ask… for help from…, promise to, will be relaxed, pick up, be confident about…,share one’s pain, run past…,compete with…, cheap to marry 4. Listening For listening turn to page 15 and be ready to do exercises 1. First read the questions carefully and imagine what is the listening about. When doing exercise 2, you must make clear what is wrong with the sentence. And tell the class which is correct, which is wrong and which is only half true. 5. Acting Next we are going to put the text A STORY OF ATLANTA on stage. You know there are four charactors in the story. Who would like to be them? Who will be Alanta’s father, the old king? Who will be the Goddess of Love? Ok. Li Li, you are the Greek princess. Zhang Qiang, you are the brave young man Hippomenes. Lucy, you are the Goddess of Love. Zhou Gang, you are the princess’s father. The rest of class, please prepare it in groups of four. Then act your play before class. A text play of THE STORY OF ATIANTA Time: one morning in spring Place: at the palace People: the old king(K), the princess (A), the young man (H), the Goddess of love (L). F: My dear daughter, you see how beautiful the spring is! You are just like the spring flowers. Why don’t you marry? So many young kings and princess want to marry you, and they are all so rich, smart and nice. A: Oh, dear father. I have promised that I will only be married to a man who can run faster than me. I will run against him. If he cannot run as fast as me, he will be killed. No one will be pardoned. F: But, my dear daughter. No man has won you. They all sent themselves to death. When will you get married? A: I won’t marry unless I am allowed to run in the Olympic Games. (Hippomenes is allowed to come in) H: Oh, my kindest king and my prettiest princess! I’ll marry the princess. I’ll compete with you. A: Do you know the rules? H: Yes, princess! F: Oh, young man! Go away! You can’t win her. You are only losing your life! H: No, I want a try! F: Foolish thing! Go away! Don’t go to die! (Hippomenes was pushed away and felt sad, crying. The Goddess of Love is watching everything above him in the sky and pities him) L: Oh, young man, what’s the matter? Why are you so sad? H: Oh, my Goddess, can you help me? Can you help me to win the princess and marry her? L: Ok, young man. Do you really want to marry her and love her? H: Of course. She is so beautiful. L: Ok, it is easy. Take these three golden apples. Throw apples in front of Atlanta when she is running past and she will be relaxed. When she stops to pick it up, you will be able to run on and win. H: Oh, thank you, my Goddess! (Hippomenes returns to the palace) K: Well, young man, why are you here again? H: My kindest king. I want to marry her and run against her! K: Well, young man. I repeat. Don’t be silly! Go away! H: No. I love her. I will marry her - or die! 6. Speaking Now, class. Let’s carry out a survey of the interests in the class and write down the names of the classmates who have the same interests. You can carry out the task like this. Which do you like, sport, music or collection? Which of the sports do you like best? What is your favorite sport? Are you interested in table tennis? After the survey, the ones who have the same interests sit together and please work in groups of four to talk about their interest. Why do you like this sport / music / collection? When do you begin to like it? What’s enjoyable about the hobby? What have you learned from the hobby? III.Guided writing 1. Writing an imagined dialogue Groups 1 and 2 are going to write an imagined dialogue between the princess and Hippomenes. You may begin like this : Oh, my dear princess, I want to marry you… 2. Writing a description Turn to page 16 and follow the direction to write a description of your favorite hobby. Here is an example: Swimming is my favorite sport. I like it because it can bring me much fun. The process of learning swimming is very interesting. You can try different ways of swimming, such as breaststroke and backstroke. You can swim at any time of the year if you like. In hot summer, if you jump into the river or the sea to have a swim, you’ll feel cool and comfortable. Even in cold winter, you can swim if you are brave enough. It’s a healthy sport and it can build up your body. If you are a beginner, you must be careful. You’ll better not swim alone and bring life buoy with you in case of danger. If you want to be a good swimmer, you must have a lot of practice and have great determination. IV. Closing down by finding information Go to the library to read or get online to search in order to find more information on the Olympic Games and the ancient Greek mythology. Take notes of your finding and report to your groupmates next Monday morning. Part Two: Teaching Resources Section 1: The writing style of the reading AN INTERVIEW Type of writing Conversational style Main idea Comparing the differences between Ancient and Modern Olympics Characteristics By comparing and contrasting Section 2: Background information on the Olympic Games I. Events of the Moden Olympic Games Archery, Baseball, Badminton, Basketball, Beach, Volleyball, Boxing, Canoe/Kayak, Cycling, Diving, Equestrian, Fencing, Field Hockey, Gymnastics, Handball, Judo, Modern Pentathlon, Rowing, Sailing, Shooting, Soccer, Softball, Swimming, Synchronized Swimming, Table Tennis, Tennis, Tae kwon do, Track & Field, Triathlon, Volleyball, Water Polo, Weightlifting, Wrestling II.Olympic Traditions The Olympic Anthem The Olympic anthem was written by the Greek national poet Costis Palamas and composed by Greek musician Splros Samaras. It was first sung at the 1896 Games. The IOC adopted it as the official Olympic anthem to crown olympic ceremonies at the 1958 IOC Session in Tokyo. The Olympic Motto The Olympic motto “swifter, higher, stronger”comes from three Latin words”citus, altius, fortius”, which actually mean”faster, higher, braver”. The French educator, Baron Rerre de Coubertin, who revived the ancient Olympic Games and in 1896 led the first modern 01ympic Games in Athens, borrowed the phrase from a Dominican priest Henri Dinon. Mr.Dinon introduced these words while presenting athletic prizes at a college in 1891.But how did these words become the motto of the Olympic Games? It was Michel Breal who introduced this phrase at the closing dinner of the congress for the reestablishment of the modern Olympic Games on June 23,1894.Later, the International Olympic Committee formally adopted this phrase as the official motto of the Games. The Olympic Creed The Olympic creed was also introduced at the 1896 Games. As stated by Pierre de Coubertin, the creed is as follows:”The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph but the struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well.” The Olympic Flag It was Pierre de Coubertin who conceived the idea of the Olympic flag with five coloured interlocking rings on a white backround. The rings represent the union of the five continents and the meeting of the athletes from all around the world at the Olympic Games. Today, almost a century after the flag’s creation, the six colours, those of the rings (blue, yellow, black, green, red) and that of the white background which stands for peace, still maintain their symbolism and can be found in flags across the world. The Olympic flag was first used during the Antwerp Games in 1920. The Olympic Oath “In the name of all the competitors, I promise that we shall take part in these Olympic Games, respecting and abiding by the rules which govern them, in the true spirit of sportsmanship, for the glory of sport and the honour of our teams.” At the opening Ceremony of each Games, one athlete from the host country takes Olympic oath on behalf of all competing athletes. This particular gesture of sports-manship was introduced at the 1920 Games in Antwerp, Belgium. A coach or team official takes a similar oath at each Opening Ceremony. The Olympic Flame The Olympic flame is one of the most visible symbols of the modern Games. Its tradition has survived from the Games of ancient Greece, where a sacred flame, ignited by the sun, burned continually on the altar of the goddess Hera. The modern Olympic flame was first lit in 1928 at the Amsterdam Olympic Games, where it burned throughout the competitions. It has become a major symbol for solidarity among nations and embodies the Olympic spirit encompassing the ideals of purity, the endeavour for perfection, the struggle for victory, friendship and peace. The Torch Relay During the 1896 Games in Athens, young inspired sportsmen had organised the first torch relays. However, the tradition of the Olympic torch officially began at the Berlin Games in 1936. As in ancient times, the torch is lit by the sun in Ancient Olympia, then passed from runner to runner in a relay to the host city, where it is used to light the Olympic Stadium’s flame during the Games’ Opening Ceremony. The flame then burns until it is extinguished at the Closing Ceremony. Section 3: Words and expressions from unit 2 THE OLYMPIC GAMES honest adj.   1. not disposed to cheat or defraud; not deceptive or fraudulent: honest lawyers 2. marked by truth: give honest answers 3. without pretensions: worked at an honest trade 4. without dissimulation; frank: my honest opinion 5. habitually speaking the truth: an honest man 6. worthy of being depended on: an honest working staff 7. free from guile: His answer was simple and honest ancient adj.   1. very old: an ancient mariner 2. in or of times long ago: ancient Rome and Greece 3. having existed since a very early time: ancient history/customs compete v.   to try to win sth. in competition with someone else: John competed for a place at their school, but didn’t get it. compete for something; engage in a contest; measure oneself against others medal n.   an award for winning a championship or commemorating some other event host n. a man who receives guests: He acted as host to his father’s friends. China is the host country for 2008 Olympic Games. v.   be the host of or for: We hosted 4 couples last night. magical adj.   possessing or using or characteristic of or appropriate to supernatural powers: a magical spell interview n.   1. the questioning of a person (or a conversation in which information is elicited); often conducted by journalists: My interviews with teen-agers revealed a weakening of religious bonds. 2. a conference (usually with someone important) v.  1. conduct an interview in television, newspaper, and radio reporting 2. discuss formally with (somebody) for the purpose of an evaluation: We interviewed the job candidates. 3. go for an interview in the hope of being hired: The job candidate interviewed everywhere. athlete n.   a person trained to compete in sports admit v.   1. allow participation in or the right to be part of; permit to exercise the rights, functions, and responsibilities of: admit someone to the profession 2. allow to enter; grant entry to: We cannot admit non-members into our club. 3. serve as a means of entrance: This ticket will admit one adult to the show. 4. give access or entrance to: The French doors admit onto the yard. 5. afford possibilitye: This problem admits of no solution. 6. declare to be true or admit the existence or reality or truth of: He admitted his errors. 7. admit into a group or community: We’ll have to vote on whether or not to admit a new member. 8. have room for; hold without crowding: The theater admits 300 people. replace v.   1. put something back where it belongs: Replace the book on the shelf after you have finished reading it. 2. substitute a person or thing for (another that is broken or inefficient or lost or no longer working or yielding what is expected): He replaced the old razor blade. 3. put in the place of another; switch seemingly equivalent items: The con artist replaced the original with a fake Rembrandt. 4. take the place or move into the position of: Smith replaced Miller as CEO after Miller left. relate v.   1. have or establish a relationship to: She relates well to her peers. 2. be in a relationship with: How are these two observations related? 3. give an account of: The witness related the events. 4. have to do with or be relevant to 5. make a logical or causal connection: I cannot relate these events at all. sail n.   1. a large piece of fabric (as canvas) by means of which wind is used to propel a sailing vessel 2. an ocean trip taken for pleasure v.  1. traverse or travel by ship on (a body of water): We sailed the Atlantic 2. travel in a boat propelled by wind: I love sailing, especially on the open sea. 3. travel by boat on a boat propelled by wind or by other means: The QE2 will sail to Southampton tomorrow. 4. move with sweeping, effortless, gliding motions: Shreds of paper sailed through the air. advertise v.   1. call attention to: Please don’t advertise the fact that he has AIDS. 2. make publicity for; try to sell (a product) promise n.   1. grounds for feeling hopeful about the future: There is little or no promise that he will recover. 2. a verbal commitment by one person to another agreeing to do (or not to do) something in the future v.  1. give grounds for expectations: The results promised fame and glory. 2. make a promise or commitment 3. promise to undertake or give: I promise you my best effort. 4. make a prediction about; tell in advance Unit 3 Computer Part One: Teaching Design (第一部分:教学设计) Period 1: A sample lesson plan for reading (WHO AM I?) Aims To talk about computer To read about computer Procedures I. Warming up Warming up by talking about computer Look at the pictures on page 17. What are they? What do they have in common? Yes, they are computers. Then what is a computer? A computer is a machine which stores knowledge in its memory and does calculations on that knowledge. This knowledge is stored in symbols; it is called data. A computer usually has a monitor to show results. However, some computers can speak; these computers can be used for voice mail. 计算机室 A computer frequently requires a boot device. The boot device contains the computer’s operating system and data. Computer programs can be installed onto a computer. Some people think that computers are less useful if they do not have access to the Internet. They think this because the Internet allows the computers to send and receive data and email across the world. 曙光3000巨型计算机 A computer is now almost always an electronic device. It usually contains materials which are toxic; these materials will become toxic waste when disposed of. When a new computer is purchased in some places, laws require that the cost of its waste management must also be paid for. This is called product stewardship. In some countries old computers are recycled (melted down) to get gold and other metals. This is dangerous, because this procedure releases the toxic waste into the water and soil. Computers become obsolete quickly. Very often they are given away and new ones replace them within two or three years. This makes the problem worse. Computer recycling is thus common. Many projects try to send working computers to developing nations so they can be re-used and will not become waste as quickly. Computer jargon 计算机行话 Computer jargon means words to do with computers and surrounding topics. Knowing what these words mean can help you know more about computers. Some people use these words to impress other people (Also known as buzzwords). Examples of jargon: Bit - The smallest data unit, can either be a “0.” or a “1.”. Byte - unit of data. See also Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte and Nibble CPU –Central Processing Unit, Another name for processor Data - Information stored on a computer Disk - A place to store data. Email - Electronic mail. GHz - Gigahertz. Used often incorrectly to describe the speed of a processor. But with some 2.4 GHz processors faster than 3.6 GHz ones, it is clear that it is just a salesman trick. Load - Get data from a disk Nibble - Half a Byte Save - Put data on a disk RAM – random-access memory(随机存取存储器), the more the better. USB - Universal Serial Bus(通用串行总线,一种简化了插接多种附件的薄型插座) WWW - World Wide Web, part of the Internet II. Pre-reading 1. Questioning and answering‑‑‑What do you know about computer? ●Electronic machine capable of performing calculations and other manipulations of various types of data, under the control of a stored set of instructions. The machine itself is the hardware; the instructions are the program or software. Depending upon size, computers are called mainframes, minicomputers, and microcomputers. Microcomputers include desk-top and portable personal computers. ●A multi-function electronic device that can execute instructions to perform a task. ●A device that accepts information, processes it, and supplies an output. A computer usually contains memory, a control unit, arithmetic and logical units, and a means for input and output. ●a programmable hardware component that is controlled by internally stored programs and that can perform substantial computations (including arithmetic and logic operations) without human intervention. A computer typically consists of one or more processing units, memory units, and associated peripheral input and output devices. ●Related to automation and electronic data processing. The Library of Congress commonly classes most computer-related books in HF5548, QA75-76, Z52, T385, and some TK ranges. ●a machine for performing calculations automatically calculator: an expert at calculation (or at operating calculating machines) ●A computer is a device or machine for making calculations or controlling operations that are expressible in numerical or logical terms. Computers are constructed from components that perform simple well-defined functions. The complex interactions of these components endow computers with the ability to process information. If correctly configured (usually by, programming) a computer can be made to represent some aspect of a problem or part of a system. If a computer configured in this way is give 2. Discussing and sharing‑‑‑How have computers changed our lives? Someday soon, if you haven’t already, you’re likely to plug into the computer network nation growing in our midst. Computer terminals, or small computers connected via modem (a modulator/demodulator circuit for encoding/decoding computer chatter) to ordinary telephone lines, should be as ubiquitous as the telephone itself. They’re a much more useful and humane tool than the phone, and with corporate America behind them the networks will be everywhere----changing our lives more than any technology since the automobile. Joining a computer network is the same as joining a community. Small systems are like villages, where new members are formally welcomed. The larger networks, the Source and CompuServe, for example, are cities-anonymous, full of life and events, but difficult to fit into. III. Reading 1. Listening and reading to the recording of the text WHO AM I? Turn to page 18 and listen and read to the recording of the text. Pay attention to the pauses, p ronunciation and intonation of the native reader. 2. Reading aloud and underlining expressions Now we are to read the text once again and underline all the expressions in the text. Put them down into your notebook after class as homework. Collocations from WHO AM I? b egin as…, a calculating machine, be built as…, follow instructions from…, sound simple, at the time, a technological revolution, write a book, make…work, solve problems, become huge, had artificial intelligence, go back to…, the size of…, go by, change size, become small and thin, get quick, stand there by oneself, be connected by…, share information by…, talk to…, bring…into…, deal with…, communicate with…, serve the human race 3. Reading, identifying and settling Attention, please! It is time to skim the text one more time and identify the difficult sentences. Try analyzing the structures of the difficult sentences and discuss them among your group members. You may also put your questions to me for help. Chat (online)(在线)聊天 To chat is to talk about ordinary things that are not very important. You can chat to one person or to many people. People also use this word now for parts of the Internet where we can talk with many different people at the same time. Usually, you chat on the internet in a chat room or messaging service like AOL(American On-Line) Instant Messenger (AIM), Yahoo Messenger, or MSN Messenger. 4. Reading and transferring Scan the text for information to complete the table below, describing the development of computer. In 1642 In 1822 In 1936 In 1960s In 1970s IV. Closing down by doing comprehending exercises Turn to page 18 and in pairs do the comprehending exercises No. 1 and 2. Period 2: A sample lesson plan for Learning about Language (The Present Perfect Passive Voice) Aims To learn to useThe Present Perfect Passive Voice To discover useful words and expression To discover useful structures Procedures I. Warming up by reading to the tape To begin with, turn to page 18, listening to and reading to the recording of the text WHO AM I? Attention goes to the pauses and intonation, as well as the pronunciation of the reader. II. Discovering useful words and expressions In pairs do the exercises 1, 2 and 3 on pages 19 and 20. You must finish them in 10 minutes. III. Learning about grammar 1. Passive Voice—Overview Tense or Model Passive Sentence Simple Present The TOEFL exam is given every six months. Simple past The TOEFL exam was given last month. Simple Future The TOEFL exam this year will be given on October15. Present Continuous The TOEFL exam is being given every year. Present perfect The TOEFL exam has been given every year since 1950. Past perfect The TOEFL exam had been given before the Vietnam War occurred. Simple Modal The TOEFL exam should be given to every Foreign student. Past Modal The TOEFL exam should have been given to all to enter US colleges. 2. The Present Perfect Passive Voice The structure of The Present Perfect Passive Voice is: have/ has + been+~ed IV. Reading aloud and discovering Now go back to page 18 to read aloud and discover in the text examples of The Present Perfect Passive Voice. As the years have gone by, I have been made smaller and smaller. Since then, my family and I have been used by billions of people to deal with information with each other around the world by the Internet. V. Discovering useful structure We shall do grammar exercises 1, 2 and 3 on page 20. VI. Closing down by doing a quiz Correct the mistakes in these passive voice sentences Example: The house was build in 1880. (correct = The house was built in 1880.) 1. 3000 employees were laying off. 2. A story will made up. 3. An idea was putted forward for discussion. 4. Has the book been give back to you yet? 5. My bank loan will be payed off in five years time. 6. Nothing can be hold against me. 7. Our allies will be lend support. 8. She has never heard of. 9. She was being knocked down by a bus. 10. She was letted off with a fine. 11. The candle was blow out by the draught. 12. The criminal were locked up. 13. The flood water was be kept back by barriers. 14. The inconvenience will made up for by this money. 15. The keys must have been being left behind. 16. The old cinema is being pull down. 17. The protesters being held back by the police. 18. The road was blocking off. 19. Thirty more people were laid off last week. 20. Your jacket can be hanged up over there. Period 3: A sample lesson plan for Using Language (ANDY— THE ANDROID) Aims To discuss about IT To write a report about IT To read about androids or robots Procedures I. Warming up by talking about IT What is Information technology? Information technology (IT) or information and communication technology (ICT) is the technology required for information processing. In particular the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit, and retrieve information from anywhere, anytime. II. Listening and writing Turn to page 21. Look at the pictures and listen to a conversation about different kinds of information technology or IT, discuss and write down in groups the advantages and disadvantages of each kind. III. Speaking and writing Suppose you and your partner are going to help choose computers for your school. Now talk about the special things each of the computer can do and write a report to your headmaster. IV. Reading, underlining and speaking It is said that computers could be put into androids or robots. Read the text Andy—The Android, underlining all the expressions and think of the fun you could have! Expressions from Andy—The Android part of a football team, once a year, get together, play a football game, be as…as…, in fat, look like…, on the football team, run fast, think like a human, shout to…, in computer language, have a good shot for a goal, get second place, win the first place, have a new kind of program, improve one’s intelligence, create a better system, play against a human team, in a way, program…with…, make up…, after all, with the help of… V. Writing a letter Suppose you are an android. What would say to a spoiled child who would not do his homework? Write a letter to the boy. Android An android is an artificially created being that resembles a human being. The word derives from Greek Andr- ‘man, human’ and the suffix -eides used to mean ‘of the species, kind, alike’ (from eidos ‘species’). T he word droid, a robot in the Star Wars universe, is derived from this meaning. Some people maintain that, etymologically, the word android means resembling a male human and that a robot resembling a woman should logically be called a gynoid for sexist language to be avoided; however, this word is not commonly used. Unlike the terms robot (a mechanical being) and cyborg (a being that is partly organic and partly mechanical), the word android has been used in literature and other media to denote several different kinds of man-made, autonomous creations: a robot that closely resembles a human a cyborg that closely resembles a human an artificially created, yet primarily organic, being that closely resembles a human Although essentially human morphology is not the ideal form for working robots, the fascination in developing robots that can mimic it can be found historically in the assimilation of two concepts: simulacra (devices that exhibit likeness) and automata (devices that have independence). The term android was first used by the French author Mathias Villiers de l'Isle-Adam (1838-1889) in his work Tomorrow’s Eve, featuring a man-made human-like robot named Hadaly. As said by the officer in the story, “In this age of Realien advancement, who knows what goes on in the mind of those responsible for these mechanical dolls.” Part Two: Teaching Resources (第二部分:教学资源) Section 1: A text structure analysis of WHO AM I? I. Type of writing and summary of WHO AM I? Type of writing This is a piece of narrative writing. Main idea of the passage Beginning as just a calculating machine in 1642 in France, the computer has been experiencing improvement again and over again over 300years or more, which has not only made it more beautiful and intelligent but also changed man’s life a great deal! Topic sentence of 1st paragraph I began as a calculating machine in 1642 in France. Topic sentence of 2nd paragraph No one could recognize me after I got my new transistors in the 1960s. II. A chain of events showing the development of computer a calculating machine in 1642 in France → an Analytical Machine in 1822 → a “universal machine.” in 1936 → the size of a large room → made smaller and smaller → getting new transistors in 1960s→ clever and quicker → a network in the early 1960s → talking to humans using BASIC in the early 1960s → brought into people’s homes in 1970s → Internet III. A retold version of the text WHO AM I? I , the computer, was a calculating machine in 1642 in France. Then I was built as an Analytical Machine in 1822, which was a technological revolution. I became a “universal machine” in 1936 to solve any mathematical problem. I was not very big at first then I became huge, the size of a large room before I was made smaller and smaller. Getting new transistors in 1960s I became clever and quicker. I was connected with other computers and turned out to part of a network in the early 1960s. Then I began talking to humans using BASIC in the early 1960s. In 1970s I was brought into people’s homes, and came the Internet. Section 2: Background information computers I. How Do Computers Work? Computer Basics To accomplish a task using a computer, you need a combination of hardware, software, and input. H ardware consists of devices, like the computer itself, the monitor, keyboard, printer, mouse and speakers. Inside your computer there are more bits of hardware, including the motherboard, where you would find the main processing chips that make up the central processing unit (CPU). The hardware processes the commands it receives from the software, and performs tasks or calculations. S oftware is the name given to the programs that you install on the computer to perform certain types of activities. There is operating system software, such as the Apple OS for a Macintosh, or Windows 95 or Windows 98 for a PC. There is also application software, like the games we play or the tools we use to compose letters or do math problems. You provide the input. When you type a command or click on an icon, you are telling the computer what to do. That is called input. How They Work Together F irst, you provide input when you turn on the computer. Then the system software tells the CPU to start up certain programs and to turn on some hardware devices so that they are ready for more input from you. This whole process is called booting up. The next step happens when you choose a program you want to use. You click on the icon or enter a command to start the program. Let’s use the example of an Internet browser. Once the program has started, it is ready for your instructions. You either enter an address (called a URL, which stands for Uniform Resource Locator), or click on an address you’ve saved already. In either case, the computer now knows what you want it to do. The browser software then goes out to find that address, starting up other hardware devices, such as a modem, when it needs them. If it is able to find the correct address, the browser will then tell your computer to send the information from the web page over the phone wire or cable to your computer. Eventually, you see the web site you were looking for. I f you decide you want to print the page, you click on the printer icon. Again, you have provided input to tell the computer what to do. The browser software determines whether you have a printer attached to your computer, and whether it is turned on. It may remind you to turn on the printer, then send the information about the web page from your computer over the cable to the printer, where it is printed out. II. Television Old portable television A television (also TV or telly) is a device (tool) with a screen that receives broadcast signals and turns them into pictures and sound. The word “television” comes from the words tele (Greek for far away) and vision (seeing). U sually a TV looks like a box. Older TVs had large wooden frames and sat on the floor like furniture. Newer TVs became smaller so they could fit on shelves, or even portable so you could take it with you wherever you went. The smallest TVs can fit in your hand. The largest TVs can take up a whole wall in your house, and may sit on the floor, or be just a large flat screen that can be mounted on the wall. Many TVs are now made in wide screen shape like movie theatre screens, rather than old, more square TVs. A television has an antenna (or aerial), or it has a cable. This gets the signal from the air, or cable provider. TVs can also show movies from DVD players or VCRs. TVs can be connected to computers and game consoles, usually through a kind of socket called “SCART”. III. Web or World Wide Web The World Wide Web is the part of the Internet that contains web sites and web pages. It is not used to describe WebPages that are used offline where net services are not available, or no computer network exists - such as Wikipedia on CD. In this case no real physical site exists other than the place where the computer is. Blog and Wiki capabilities will also not be available because these require a communication with other computers. IV. Radio R adio is a communications invention. Though originally used to communicate between two people, it is now used to listen to music, news, and people talking. Radio shows were the predecessor to TV programs. V. DVD D VD most commonly stands for “digital versatile disk”. It can play video that is of a higher quality than a VHS tape. VI. Two kinds of DVD They can also hold 4.7 GB of information as opposed to the 700 MB that a CD can hold. A plus of using a DVD for a video is the ability to have interactive menus and bonus features such as deleted scenes and commentaries. VII. Email E mail (electronic mail) is a message, usually text, sent from one Internet user to another. Email is quicker than snail mail(mail) when sending over long distances and is usually free. To send or receive an email, a computer with a modem and telephone line connected to the Internet, and an email program are required. Email addresses are generally formated like this: login@server.(com or fr or org or uk or other). Some companies let you send and receive email for free from a website. Gmail, Hotmail and Yahoo! do this. VIII. Human Here are two humans. A man is on the left and a woman is on the right. A human or human being is a person, like you. A male human is a man, a female human is a woman. If you think about all humans in the whole world, they are called humanity. In the past, people have also used man and mankind to mean all humans. Humans are called Homo sapiens by scientists. Humans are an animal species that belongs to the group called primates. Monkeys are primates too, but the primates most like people are gorillas and chimpanzees. Most scientists think that chimpanzees and humans came from a common ancestor by what is called evolution. Other animals even more like humans than chimpanzees once lived too, but they are now extinct. Human rights are those things that everyone deserves and the way they should be treated by other people. Section 3: Words and expressions from Unit 3 Computers common n.   1. an area of grassland with no fences which all people are free to use or a piece of open land for recreational use in an urban area (常用于专有名词中): Every Saturday Jean went riding on the village common. Harlow Common is very beautiful in winter.哈洛公园在冬天时风景很美。2. in common: in shared possession 3. out of common: unusual adj.   1. of or associated with the great masses of people: The common people in those days suffered greatly. 2. to be expected; standard: common decency. 3. common to or shared by two or more parties: common friend. 4. of no special distinction or quality; widely known or commonly encountered; average or ordinary or usual: the common man. 5. belonging to or participated in by a community as a whole; public: for the common good. 6. commonly encountered: a common (or familiar) complaint. 7. being or characteristic of or appropriate to everyday language: common parlance. 8. lacking refinement or cultivation or taste: behavior that branded him as common. 9. of low or inferior quality or value: produced...the common cloths used by the poorer population. simple n.   1. any herbaceous plant having medicinal properties 2. a person lacking intelligence or common sense adj.   1. not elaborate in style; unornamented: a simple country schoolhouse. 2. (botany) of leaf shapes; of leaves having no divisions or subdivisions 3. having few parts; not complex or complicated or involved: a simple problem. 4. easy and not involved or complicated: a simple game.) 5. lacking mental capacity and devoid of subtlety 6. exhibiting childlike simplicity and credulity: simple courtesy. technology n.   1. the practical application of science to commerce or industry 2. the discipline dealing with the art or science of applying scientific knowledge to practical problems universal n.   coupling that connects two rotating shafts allowing freedom of movement in all directions: In motor vehicles a universal joint allows the drive shaft to move up and down as the vehicle passes over bumps.) adj.   of worldwide scope or applicability: universal experience. mathematical adj.   1. statistically possible though highly improbable: have a mathematical chance of making the playoffs. 2. beyond question: a mathematical certainty. 3. of or pertaining to or of the nature of mathematics: a mathematical textbook. 4. characterized by the exactness or precision of mathematics: mathematical precision. 5. relating to or having ability to think in or work with numbers: a mathematical whiz. artificial adj.   1. contrived by art rather than nature: artificial flowers. 2. not arising from natural growth or characterized by vital processes 3. artificially formal: Her husband hated the artificial humility . disagree v.   1. be different from one another 2. be of different opinions: She disagrees with her husband on many questions. disadvantage n.   the quality of having an inferior or less favorable position v.   put at a disadvantage; hinder, harm: This rule clearly disadvantages me. choice n.   1. the act of choosing or selecting: Your choice of colors was unfortunate.) 2. one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen: My only choice is to refuse. adj.   1. of superior grade: choice wines. 2. appealing to refined taste: choice wine. material n.   1. things needed for doing or making something: writing materials. 2. information (data or ideas or observations) that can be used or reworked into a finished form: The archives provided rich material for a definitive biography.) 3. a person judged suitable for admission or employment: He was university material. 4. the tangible substance that goes into the makeup of a physical object: Coal is a hard black material. 5. artifact made by weaving or felting or knitting or crocheting natural or synthetic fibers: She measured off enough material for a dress. adj.   1. directly relevant to a matter especially a law case: His support made a material difference. 2. concerned with or affecting physical as distinct from intellectual or psychological well-being: material needs. 3. concerned with worldly rather than spiritual interests: material possessions. 4. derived from or composed of matter: The material universe. 5. having substance or capable of being treated as fact; not imaginary mate n.   1. the partner of an animal (especially a sexual partner): He loved the mare and all her mates. 2. a fellow member of a team: It was his first start against his former teammates. create v.   1. invest with a new title, office, or rank: Create one a peer. 2. create by artistic means: Create a poem. 3. bring into existence: The company was created 25 years ago. 4. make or cause to be or to become: create a furor. move n.   1. the act of deciding to do something: He didn’t make a move to help. 2. the act of changing your residence or place of business: They say that three moves equal one fire. 3. the act of changing location from one place to another: The movement of people from the farms to the cities. 4. a change of position that does not entail a change of location: Movement is a sign of life. v.   1. dispose of by selling: The chairman of the company told the salesmen to move the computers. 2. live one’s life in a specified environment: She moves in certain circles only. 3. go or proceed from one point to another: The debate moved from family values to the economy. 4. arouse sympathy or compassion in: Her fate moved us all. 5. move so as to change position, perform a nontranslational motion: He moved his hand slightly to the right. 6. cause to move, both in a concrete and in an abstract sense: Move those boxes into the corner, please. 7. change residence, affiliation, or place of employment: We moved from Idaho to Nebraska. 8. perform an action, or work out or perform (an action): We must move quickly. 9. change location; move, travel, or proceed: The soldiers moved towards the city in an attempt to take it before night fell. 10. give an incentive for action: This moved me to sacrifice my career. brain n.   1. part of the central nervous system that includes all the higher nervous centers; enclosed within the skull; continuous with the spinal cord 2. mental ability: He’s got plenty of brains but no common sense. spoil n.   1. the act of stripping and taking by force 2. the act of spoiling something by causing damage to it: Her spoiling my dress was deliberate.3. (usually plural) valuables taken by violence (especially in war): To the victor belong the spoils of the enemy. v.  1. become unfit for consumption or use: The meat must be eaten before it spoils. 2. have a strong desire or urge to do something: He is spoiling for a fight. mop n.   cleaning implement consisting of absorbent material fastened to a handle; for cleaning floors v.  1. make a sad face and thrust out one’s lower lip: Mop and mow.) 2. to wash or wipe with or as if with a mop: Mop the hallway now. wander v.   1. go via an indirect route or at no set pace: After dinner, we wandered into town. 2. move about aimlessly or without any destination, often in search of food or employment: The wandering Jew. 3. lose clarity or turn aside especially from the main subject of attention or course of argument in writing, thinking, or speaking: Her mind wanders. 4. be sexually unfaithful to one’s partner in marriage: Might her husband be wandering? 5. to move or cause to move in a sinuous, spiral, or circular course: Sometimes, the gout wanders through the entire body. Unit 4 Wildlife protection Part One: Teaching Design (第一部分:教学设计) Period 1: A sample lesson plan for reading (HOW DAISY LEARNED TO HELP WILDLIFE) Aims To talk about endangered species To read about wildlife protection Procedures I. Warming up by learning about animals Look at the photos below and listen to me telling you about the animals, the endangered animals. T he Giant Panda is a mammal now usually classified in the bear family, Ursidae, that is native to central China. The Giant Panda lives in mountainous regions, like Sichuan and Tibet. The Giant Panda is the symbol of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), a conservation organization. Toward the latter half of the 20th century, the panda also became somewhat of a national emblem for China, and is now used in Chinese gold coins. Giant Pandas are an endangered species, threatened by continued loss of habitat and by a very low birthrate, both in the wild and in captivity. About 1,600 are believed to survive in the wild. M ilu deer is a Chinese deer. It has a long tail, wide hooves, and branched antlers. Another Chinese name for it is “four unlikes,.” because the animals were seen as having the horns of a stag, the neck of a camel, the foot of a cow, and the tail of an ass. These animals were first made known to Western science in the 19th century, by Father Arm and David, a French missionary working in China. At the time, the only surviving herd was in a preserve belonging to the Chinese emperor. The last herd of Milu deers that remained in China were eaten by Western and Japanese troops that were present at the time of the Boxer Rebellion. These deer are now found in zoos around the world, and a herd of Milu deer was reintroduced to Dafeng Reserve, China in the late 1980s. They are classified as “critically endangered.” in the wild, but do not appear to have suffered from a genetic bottleneck because of small population size. A tiger is a large cat famous for its beautiful fur of orange striped with black. Tigers live in Asia and are becoming very rare. This is due to people hunting them for their fur and destroying the forests they live in. II. Pre-reading Defining wildlife What does the world wildlife mean? The term wildlife refers to living organisms that are not in any way artificial or domesticated and which exist in natural habitats. Wildlife can refer to flora (plants) but more commonly refers to fauna (animals). Needless to say, wildlife is a very general term for life in various ecosystems. Deserts, rainforests, plains, and other areas—including the most built-up urban sites—all have distinct forms of wildlife. H umankind has historically tended to separate civilization from wildlife in a number of ways; besides the obvious difference in vocabulary, there are differing expectations in the legal, social, and moral sense. This has been reason for debate throughout recorded history. Religions have often declared certain animals to be sacred, and in modern times concern for the environment has provoked activists to protest the exploitation of wildlife for human benefit or entertainment. Reading to the recording Now turn to page 26, listening and reading to the recording of the text. Try to keep pace with the native reader, making your reading resemble that of the reader, in speed, in intonation and in pronunciation. Reading and transforming Now you are to read the text for information to fill in the form. What did Daisy see where she was? In Tibet in China Zimbabwe In thick rain forest Reading and underlining Next you are to read the text and underline all the collocations at the same time. HOW DAISY LEARNED TO HELP WILDLIFE not long ago, wake up, find…by one’s side, a flying chair, get dressed, put on one’s jeans, fly away to…, turn around, with a sad face, use…to make…, kill…for…, take…from under…, take one’s picture, become endangered, destroy the farm, take photos, apply to, hunt…for…, make money for…, as a result, in thick rain forest, protect…from…, rub…over…, a powerful drug, pay attention to…, take…home III. Closing up by matching animals to five risk categories Different endangered species appear on different endangered species lists. And people who are trying to protecting animal use the following five risk categories to group the unlucky animal. Now in groups of four try to group all the unlucky animals found in China. List of Unlucky animals found in China 中国不幸动物分类名录 EXTINCT(灭绝动物)-A species formerly indigenous to Canada that no longer exists anywhere. EXTIRPATED(根绝动物)-A species no longer existing in the wild in Canada but occurring elsewhere. ENDANGERED(濒危动物)-A species threatened with imminent extinction or extirpation throughout all or a significant portion of its Canadian range. THREATENED(危急动物)-A species likely to become endangered in Canada if the factors affecting its vulnerability are not reversed. VULNERABLE(弱势动物)-A species particularly at risk because of low or declining numbers, small range or for some other reason, but not a threatened species. Period 2: A sample lesson plan for Learning about Language (The Present Progressive Passive Voice) Aims To learn about The Present Progressive Passive Voice To discover useful words and expressions To discover useful structures. Procedures I. Warming up by acting a text play Good morning class. To begin with we shall put our text HOW DAISY LEARNED TO HELP WILDLIFE on stage, that is, to act out our story. Now the class acting team with their text play of HOW DAISY LEARNED TO HELP WILDLIFE! II. Discovering useful words and expressions 1. Doing vocabulary exercises Turn to page 28 and do the vocabulary exercises 1, 2 and 3. You can simply write your answers in the blanks on the very page of 28. 2. Playing a game Let’s go on to play the game described on the top of the page 29. The following sentences are to be passed on. Plant native plants in your backyard. Do not dump weeds in the bush. Build a frog pond in your backyard. Put your rubbish in the bin. Leave your pets at home. Do not take anything out of the park. Encourage your friends to keep patches of bush as wildlife habitats. Join a community group and offer to do voluntary work. Find out about conservation activities happening in your local area. P articipate in local clean-up, tree planting and weed control activities. Learn About Threatened Species Look out for wildlife Refuse to buy any rare or endangered plant or animal product. Be alert and drive slowly at dawn and dusk in rural areas where wildlife may be active. III. Studying The Present progressive Passive Voice 1. Passive Voice The passive voice is used when focusing on the person or thing affected by an action. The Passive is formed: Passive Subject + To Be + Past Participle It is often used in business and in other areas where the object of the action is more important than those who perform the action. For Example: We have produced over 20 different models in the past two years. Changes to: Over 20 different models have been produced in the past two years. If the agent (the performer of the action) is important, use “by.” For Example: Tim Wilson wrote The Flight to Brunnswick in 1987. The Flight to Brunnswick was written in 1987 by Tim Wilson. Only verbs that take an object can be used in the passive. The following chart includes sentences changed from the active to the passive in the principal tenses. Active Passive Time Reference They make Fords in Cologne. Fords are made in Cologne. Present Simple Susan is cooking dinner. Dinner is being cooked by Susan Present Continuous James Joyce wrote Dubliners. Dubliners was written by James Joyces. Past Simple They were painting the house when I arrived. The house was being painted when I arrived. Past Continuous They have produced over 20 models in the past two years. Over 20 models have been produced in the past two years. Present Perfect They are going to build a new factory in Portland. A new factory is going to be built in Portland. Future Intention with Going to I will finish it tomorrow. It will be finished tomorrow. Future Simple 2. Passive Verb Formation The passive forms of a verb are created by combining a form of the “to be verb.” with the past participle of the main verb. Other helping verbs are also sometimes present: “The measure could have been killed in committee.” The passive can be used, also, in various tenses. Let’s take a look at the passive forms of “design.” Tense Subject Auxiliary Past Participle Singular Plural Present The car/cars is are designed. Present perfect The car/cars has been have been designed. Past The car/cars was were designed. Past perfect The car/cars had been had been designed. Future The car/cars will be will be designed. Future perfect The car/cars will have been will have been designed. Present progressive The car/cars is being are being designed. Past progressive The car/cars was being were being designed. IV. Reading and identifying Since you are clear about Passive Verb Formation, go back to page 26 and scan the text for all the examples of The Present Progressive Passive Voice. Our fur is being used to make sweaters like yours. She was being watched by an excited elephant. … Now try to put the following sentences into The Present Progressive Passive Voice. They are producing this new drug. Antelope is looking at her. They are killing us for the wool. They are destroying the farm. V. Discovering useful structures To consolidate your learning of The Present Progressive Passive Voice, turn to page 29 and do the grammar exercises 1, 2 and 3, also on the very page of 29. VI. Closing down by playing a game To end this period go to page 29 and play the game called “Tell me what is happening?” Ask questions containing The Present Progressive Passive Voice. Period 3: A sample lesson plan for Using Language (ABOUT DINOSAURS) Aims T o read and listen about dinosaurs To speak about helping the dodo To write to the dodo Procedures I. Warming up by reading to the tape Let’s warm up by reading aloud to the recording of the text ABOUT DINOSAURS on page 30. II. Listening about DINOSAURS N ow I’d like to tell you something about DINOSAURS ■In formation about Dinosaur Dinosaur means terrible lizard in Latin. They were called that because people used to think dinosaurs were lizards, but they were not. Dinosaurs first appeared about 200 million years ago. 65 million years ago, many kinds of dinosaurs became extinct. Birds are a special type of dinosaur and they were the only kind to live until today. T here were many kinds of dinosaurs. Some ate plants and some ate meat. The largest dinosaurs were plant-eaters like apatosaurus and brachiosaurus. They were the largest animals to ever walk on dry land. Other plant-eaters had special weapons to help them fight off the meat-eaters. For example, triceratops had three horns on its face, ankylosaurus was covered in boney plates, and stegosaurus had spikes on its tail. T he meat-eaters all ran around on their back legs like people do. Some were very large, like tyrannosaurus, and some were small, like compsognathus. It was the smaller sized meat-eaters that evolved into birds. One of the first birds was archaeopteryx, but it looked half like a dinosaur. There were large flying reptiles that lived at the same time as dinosaurs called pterosaurs, but they were not closely related to dinosaurs. There were also many kinds of large reptiles that could swim, like ichthyosaurs and pleisiosaurs, but they weren’t closely related to dinosaurs either. III. Reading and copying Next we shall go back to the text ABOUT DINOSAURS on page 30 again to read it and copy down all the expressions into your notebook. Useful phrases from ABOUT DINOSAURS D uring the history of the earth, live on the earth, tens of millions of years ago, came into being, eggs of five species, a rare new species, a bird-like dinosaur, climb tree, tell…from…, die out, hit the earth, put…into the air, get hot, live on, know for sure, in the same way, listen to the story about…, disappear from… IV. Reading to answer questions Read the questions in the table below and scan the text to answer them. When did dinosaurs live on earth? When did dinosaurs die out? How did dinosaurs die out? V. Listening about the dodo Have you ever heard of the dodo, an animal that has also disappeared from the earth? T he Mauritius Dodo (Raphus cucullatus, called Didus ineptus by Linnaeus), more commonly just Dodo, was a metre-high flightless bird of the island of Mauritius. The Dodo, which is now extinct, lived on fruit and nested on the ground. Next we are going to listen to the tape and do exercises 1 and 2 on page 30 on dodo. VI. Speaking in pairs about helping the dodo Z hao Yannan: The Dodo was driven to extinction by sailors when they discovered the island of Maritius in the 17th century. It is one of the first documented human induced extinctions. Zhao Yanfei: What a pity that we can not find any dodo now. Imagine we are with the dodo, Yannan, what could we do to help it? Zhao Yannan: Then I would intend to hide it in a cave, so that sailors could not find it. Zhao Yanfei: If I were there, I would try to trap them as they were catching and killing the dodo. Putting man who is harmful to the dodo in a cage and attacking him is the best way to protect and save the dodo. Zhao Yannan: I’d like to and I’m ready to, teach man how to be friends with animals, including the dodo. The man and the dodo can be living side by side on the earth. They can be happy together. ZhaoYanfei: I would rather not tell you what I think of man. He is selfish and cruel. He cares only for himself and that is why so many animals have disappeared from this earth. Putting the bad men in a cage is the only way out, I am sure. VII. Closing down by writing to the dodo All right now, boys and girls, to end this period next you are to write a letter or an email to the dodo telling him what you are going to do to save him. By 1681, the last dodo died, and the species became extinct. After hundreds of years, no one recalled what a dodo bird was, and it was regarded as a myth invented by imaginative sailors. It wasn’t until the 1900’s when the bones were found that the dodo was believed to be real. Today, the dodo bird is a symbol of the harm humans can bring to other living things if we are irresponsible. Part Two: Teaching Resources (第二部分:教学资源) Section 1: A text structure analysis of HOW DAISY LEARNED TO HELP WILDLIFE I. Type of writing and summary of the idea HOW DAISY LEARNED TO HELP WILDLIFE Type of writing This is a piece of narrative writing. Main idea of the passage Daisy went by flying chair to Tibet, Zimbabwe and a certain thick rain forest to visit endangered animals, which made her know a lot about some destructive as well as protection behaviors that people had done to wildlife. Idea of 1st paragraph Daisy arrived in Tibet to see a sad antelope to learn that in three years they may all be gone. Idea of 2nd and 3rd paragraphs Daisy came to Zimbabwe to see an excited elephant and learned that his family was being protected by man. Idea of 4th paragraph Daisy landed in a thick rain forest to find a clever monkey and learned that no rain forest, no animals and no drugs. Idea of 5th paragraph Daisy returned home learning so much about wildlife. II. A text play(课本剧)of HOW DAISY LEARNED TO HELP WILDLIFE D aisy: (waking) Who are you? Why are you here in my bedroom? Chair: Excuse me. I am the famous Flying Chair. Daisy: What are you here for? Chair: I am here to take you on a trip. Where would you go? Daisy: I’d like to see animals that gave furs to make this sweater of mine. Chair: During the history of the earth there have lived on the earth many, many kinds of animals. But many have disappeared because of various reasons. Daisy: Yes, you are right. I learned from books that tens of millions of years ago, a rare new species of dinosaur, a bird-like dinosaur, came into being. It could climb trees and was very lovely. Then it died out because something hit the earth suddenly, putting much dust into the air. So the earth got too hot for the animal to live on. C hair: But no one knows for sure what caused all those ancient animals to die out, disappearing from the earth for ever. Daisy: I shall get dressed and put on my jeans and sweater soon. Then let’s fly away to Tibet China to see the antelopes. Chair: Here we are in Tibet! Turn around. There is a antelope there with a sad face. A ntelope: Hello, friends. Welcome to my home. You two look so friendly, unlike those who came to kill us to use our furs make sweaters. Daisy: Sweaters like the one I am wearing? Oh, I am terribly sorry. Antelope: The bad men came in groups to kill my family members for the wool. They took it from under our stomach. Chair: I shall take a picture of you and the antelope, to be shown to all the world people. Daisy: Come Antelope! Let’s have a picture taken together. We shall be off to Zimbabwe too see elephants there. Chair: Here we are. This is a national park for animals. People came to see them and help with them. Daisy: Look, there comes an excited elephant. Hello, dear Elephant! Why are you so excited? Elephant: We are all excited because things have changed a lot here. Chair: Why? What happened? Elephant: We became endangered years ago. People came to destroy the farm and kill us for trunks. They are actually our long teeth. Daisy: I have heard of that. They take your teeth and make them into art work. Chair: Man is really selfish and disgusting. But Daisy is a nice girl. Now let’s have a picture taken together. E lephant: Those bad men used to come and kill us. But now are well protected by the government and the good people. We are happy now. Daisy: Good- bye, Elephant! Chair: Take care, Daisy. We shall hurry to our last stop, the thick rain forest in South America. Daisy: Wow! Look to the right. A lovely mother monkey is there. She seems to be rubbing herself. Hi, Monkey Mother! What are you doing? Monkey: I am rubbing a millipede insect over my body to protect myself from the mosquitoes. Daisy: How intelligent you are! Monkey: It contains a powerful drug which affects mosquitoes. There are lots of plants and little animals in the rain forest here which can be helpful to man. Daisy: Is that so? I am going to take photos of all those useful plants and animals. I will show the photos to my classmates so that they understand you lovely animals and the forest better. I will apply to be allowed to work here to help you get a better living in the forest. Monkey: Thank you so much! Some unfriendly people came to catch us, to put us in the zoo in the city. We monkeys prefer living in the forest. Daisy: Good- bye, Monkey! I will report what I learned on this trip to WWF. I will invite all my schoolmates to join us in the protecting project. The future is to be bright for both you the animals and us the human beings. See you! Section 2: Background information on wildlife protection I. 中国国家重点保护动物名录 国家一级保护动物 最凶猛的雕:金雕 1 .金雕 Aquila chrysaetos 2.白鹳 Ciconia ciconia 3.黑麂 Muntyacus crinifrons 4.云豹 Neofelis nebulosa 5.华南虎 Panthera tigris 6.豹 Panthera pardusfusca 7.白颈长尾雉 Syrmaticus ellioti 8.黄腹角雉 Tragopan caboti 国家二级保护动物 鬣羚:真兽下纲,反刍亚目,有角下目,牛科 1.鬣羚 Capricornis sumatraensis 2 .豺 Cuon alpinus 3.金猫 Felis temmincki 4.短尾猴 Macaca arctoides 猕猴 Macaca mulatta 6 .穿山甲 Manis pentadactyla 7.黄喉貂 Martes flavigula 8.斑羚 Naemorhedus goral 9.大灵猫 Viverra zibetha 10.小灵猫 Viverricula indica 11.雀鹰 Accipiter nisus 12.赤腹鹰 Accipiter soloensis 13.苍鹰 Accipiter gentilis 14.鸳鸯 Aix galericulata 15.乌雕 Aquila clanga 16.白腹山雕 Aquila fasciata 17.短耳鸮 Asio flammeus 18.长耳鸮 Asio otus 19.雕鸮 Bubo bubo 20.灰脸鹰 Butastur indicus 21.大鵟 Buteo hemilasius 22.毛脚鵟 Buteo lagopus 23.普通鵟 Buteo buteo 24.红脚隼 Falco vespertinus 25.灰背隼 Falco columbarius 26.游隼 Falco peregrinus 27.燕隼 Falco subbuteo 28.红隼 Falco tinnunculus 29.领鸺鹠 Glaucidium brodiei 30.斑头鸺鹠 Glaucidium cuculoides 31.白鹇 Lophura nycthemera 32.小隼 Mrcrohierax caerulescens 33.鸢 Milvus migrans 34.鹰鸮 Ninox scutulata 35.小杓鹬 Numenius borealis 36.领角鸮 Otus bakkamoena 37.红角鸮 Otus scops 38.勺鸡 Pucrasia macrolopla 39.蛇雕 Spilornis cheela 40.鹰雕 Spizaetus nipalensis 41.褐林鸮 Strix leptogrammica 42.草鸮 Tyto capensis 43.大鲵 Andrias davidianus 44.虎纹蛙 Rana tigrina 45.拉步甲 Carabus lafossaei II. What is WWF? WWF, the global conservation organization was originally known as World Wildlife Fund. In 1986, it changed its name to World Wide Fund For Nature (except in the US and Canada) to better represent the spread of its work. It was founded on September 11, 1961 by, among others, t he biologist Sir Julian Huxley, Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands, Max Nicholson and the naturalist and painter Sir Peter Scott who designed the original black and white panda logo. It is one of the world’s largest environmental organizations, with a network of offices in nearly 60 countries and a secretariat in Gland, Switzerland. P robably the most famous name associated with WWF is HRH The Duke of Edinburgh. The Duke was the first President of WWF-UK from its foundation in 1961 to 1982, International President of WWF (1981-1996), and is now President Emeritus. WWF is dedicated to stopping the degradation of the planet’s natural environment and building a future in which humans live in harmony with nature, by: conserving the world’s biological diversity, ensuring that the use of renewable natural resources is sustainable, promoting the reduction of pollution and wasteful consumption. WWF has a factual, science-based approach to conservation, which focuses on six priority issues of global concern: forests, oceans and coasts, fresh water, endangered species, and the insidious threats of toxic chemicals and climate change. For each of these issues, WWF has developed measurable targets and runs more than 1,200 field projects around the world in any year. III. Antelope T he antelope are a group of herbivorous African animals of the family Bovidae, distinguished by a pair of hollow horns on their heads. These animals are spread relatively evenly throughout the various subfamilies of Bovidae and many are more closely related to cows or goats than each other. There are many different species of antelope, ranging in size from tiny to very big. They typically have a light and elegant figure, slender, graceful limbs, small cloven hoofs, and a short tail. Antelope have powerful hindquarters and when startled they run with a peculiar bounding stride that makes them look as though they are bouncing over the terrain like a giant rabbit. Some species of antelope can reach speeds of 60 miles per hour (100 kilometers per hour), making them among the fastest of land animals. IV. Elephant Elephantidae (the elephants) is the only extant family in the order Proboscidea. Elephantidae has three living species: the Savannah Elephant and Forest Elephant (which were collectively known as the African Elephant) and the Asian Elephant (formerly known as the Indian Elephant). During the period of the ice age there were more species, which are now extinct. E lephants are the largest living land mammals. At birth it is common for an elephant calf to weigh 100 kg (225 pounds). It takes 20 to 22 months for a baby elephant to mature to birth, the longest gestation period of any land animal. An elephant may live as long as 60 to 70 years. The largest elephant ever recorded was a male shot in Angola in 1974, weighing 12000 kilograms or 26400 pounds. Prehistoric human beings have been known to eat elephants, as recent findings of animal remains in central China show. The elephant is now a protected animal, and consumption is prohibited around the world. V. Monkey A monkey is any member of two of the three groupings of simian primates. These two groupings are the New World and Old World monkeys. Because of their similarity to monkeys, apes such as chimpanzees and gibbons are sometimes incorrectly called monkeys. Also, a few monkey species have the word “ape.” in their common name. Because they are not a single coherent group, monkeys do not have any important characteristics that they all share and are not shared with the remaining group of simians, the apes. M onkeys range in size from the Pygmy Marmoset, at 10 cm (4 inch) long (plus tail) and 120 g (4 oz) in weight to the male Mandrill, almost 1 metre (3 ft) long and weighing 35 kg (75 lb). Some are arboreal (living in trees), some live on the savanna; some eat fruit, some eat leaves, and some eat insects; although most have tails (sometimes prehensile), others do not; some have trichromatic colour vision like that of humans, others are dichromats or monochromats. Although both the new and old world monkeys, like the apes, have forward facing eyes, the faces of Old World and New World monkeys look very different. To understand the monkeys, therefore, it is necessary to study the characteristics of the different groups individually. Section 3: Words and expressions from Unit 4 Wildlife protection enemy n.  1. any hostile group of people: He viewed lawyers as the real enemy. 2. an opposing military force : The enemy attacked at dawn. reserve v.  1. arrange for and reserve (something for someone else) in advance: Reserve me a seat on a flight. 2. obtain or arrange (for oneself) in advance: We managed to reserve a table at Maxim’s. 3. give or assign a share of money or time to a particular person or cause hunt n.   an instance of searching for something: the hunt for submarines. v.  chase away, with as with force: They hunted the unwanted immigrants out of the neighborhood. v.   1. pursue for food or sport (as of wild animals): Goering often hunted wild boars in Poland. 2. search (an area) for prey: The King used to hunt these forests. 3. seek, search for: She hunted for her reading glasses but was unable to locate them. 4. oscillate about a desired speed, position, or state to an undesirable extent: The oscillator hunts about the correct frequency. 5. pursue or chase relentlessly: The hunters traced the deer into the woods. wild n.   a wild primitive state untouched by civilization: He lived in the wild. adj.  1. in a state of extreme emotion: wild with anger. 2. produced without being planted or without human labor: wild strawberries. 3. in a natural state; not tamed or domesticated or cultivated: wild geese. 4. marked by extreme lack of restraint or control: wild ideas. 5. not subjected to control or restraint: A piano played with a wild exuberance- Louis Bromfield. 6. deviating widely from an intended course: a wild bullet. 7. (of colors or sounds) intensely vivid or loud: wild colors. 8. talking or behaving irrationally 9. located in a dismal or remote area; desolate: a godforsaken wilderness crossroads. 10. without civilizing influences: wild tribes. adv.   in a wild or undomesticated manner: growing wild. protection n.   1. payment extorted by gangsters on threat of violence: Every store in the neighborhood had to pay him protection. 2. the activity of protecting someone or something: The witnesses demanded police protection. 3. the imposition of duties or quotas on imports in order to protect domestic industry against foreign competition: He made trade protection a plank in the party platform. 4. the condition of being protected: They were huddled together for protection. 5. defense against financial failure; financial independence: Insurance provided protection against loss of wages due to illness. 6. a covering that is intend to protect from damage or injury: They had no protection from the fallout. peace n.   1. a treaty to cease hostilities: Peace came on November 11th. 2. harmonious relations; freedom from disputes: The roommates lived in peace together. 3. the general security of public places: He was arrested for disturbing the peace. apply v.   1. apply oneself to: Please apply yourself to your homework. 2. be pertinent or relevant or applicable: The same laws apply to you! 3. ask (for something): Apply for a job. 4. refer (a word or name) to a person or thing 5. give or convey physically 6. avail oneself to: Apply a principle. 7. ensure observance of laws and rules: Apply the rules to everyone. 8. put into service; make work or employ (something) for a particular purpose or for its inherent or natural purpose: Apply a magnetic field here. suggest v.   imply as a possibility: The evidence suggests a need for more clarification. rub n.   the act of rubbing or wiping: He gave the hood a quick rub. v.   move over something with pressure: Rub my hands. contain v.  1. be capable of holding or containing 2. be divisible by: 24 contains 6. 3. include or contain; have as a component: The record contains many old songs from the 1930’s. 4. contain or hold; have within: This can contains water. 5. hold back, as of a danger or an enemy; check the expansion or influence of: Contain the rebel movement. affect v.  1. have an effect upon: Will the new rules affect me? 2. connect closely and often incriminatingly: This new ruling affects your business. 3. make believe with the intent to deceive Unit 5 Music Part One: Teaching Design (第一部分:教学设计) Period 1: A sample lesson plan for reading (THE BAND THAT WASN’T) Aims ◆To learn to talk about kinds of music ◆To learn to read about bands ◆To study The Attributive Clause (in/ for/ with/ by+which/ whom) ◆To learn to write an e-mail Procedures I. Warming up Warming up by describing Good morning, class. Today we are going to talk about an interesting topic --- music. As we know, music is a kind of art of making pleasing combinations of sounds in rhythm, harmony and counterpoint. Music can produce a lively and happy atmosphere and bring people relaxation after hard work, which can reduce the tiredness. Listening to music also makes people feel happy and nice. How many do you know about music? Can you tell about different kinds of music? Now turn to page 33, look at the pictures, read the captions and listen to the different kinds of music. See if you can guess which music matches with which picture. Warming up by discussing Hi, everyone. Do you like music? How much do you know about music? Can you tell about the different kinds of music? Please turn to page 33. Look at the pictures. Let’s listen to some music. Let’s see if you can guess which music matches with which picture. Classical music Country music Rock ‘n’ Roll Rap Orchestra Folk music Yes, you are right. I’m sure you will really enjoy yourselves after listening to all these beautiful music. What kind of music do you like better, Chinese or Western, classical or modern? Why? How does music make you feel? Why do you like to listen to music? Let’s discuss these questions in small groups. Try to share your opinions with one another. II. Pre-reading 1.Thinking and saying Have you heard about any of the famous bands in the world? List some if you can. For reference: I’ve heard about “The Beatles”, “Back Street Boys”, “The Eagles”, “West life” and “Pink Floyd”. 2.Listening, talking and sharing Let’s listen to some pieces of music from different bands. Work in groups of four. Tell your group mates which band you like best. Why? Then the group leader is to stand up and share the group idea with the class. For reference: I am from Group 1. Our group likes “The Beatles” best. We like their style of performances. Listening to their performances, we will feel relaxed, amused, and their performances make us think a lot about life. Do you know anything about “The Monkees”? For reference: “The Monkees” is a band that was first popular in the 1960s in America. Unlike most bands of the time, the Monkees were not formed by its members but rather by TV producers. They were a fictional band in the TV show of the same name. The band was composed of Mike Nesmith, Mickey Dolenz, Davy Jones, and Peter Tork. All the members had some musical experience. Let’s come to the reading --- The Band That Wasn’t and find more about them. III. Reading 1.Reading aloud to the recording Now please listen and read aloud to the recording of the text THE BAND THAT WASN’T. Pay attention to the pronunciation of each word and the pauses within each sentence. I will play the tape twice and you shall read aloud twice, too. 2.Reading and underlining Next you are to read and underline all the useful expressions or collocations in the passage. Copy them to your notebook after class as homework. Collocations from THE BAND THAT WASN’T dream of doing , at a concert , with sb. clapping and enjoying …, sing karaoke , be honest with oneself, get to form a band, high school students, practice one’s music, play to passers-by, in the subway, earn some extra money, begin as a TV show, play jokes on…, be based loosely on…, the TV organizers, make good music, put an advertisement in a newspaper, look for rock musicians, pretend to do sth., the attractive performances, be copied by…, support them fiercely, become more serious about…, play their own instruments, produce one’s own records, start touring, break up, in the mid-1980s, a celebration of one’s time as a real band 3.Reading to identify the topic sentence of each paragraph Skim the text and identify the topic sentence of each paragraph. You may find it either at the beginning, the middle or the end of the paragraph. 1st paragraph: How do people get to form a band? 2nd paragraph: Most musicians meet and form a band. 3rd paragraph: One band started as a TV show. 4th paragraph: “The Monkees” became even more popular than “The Beatles”. 3.Reading and transferring information Read the text again to complete the tables, which list how people formed a band and how The Monkees was formed by the TV organizers and became a real band. How do people get to form a band? Members High school students Reasons They like to write and play music. Places They practice their music in someone’s home. Forms They may play to passers-by in the street or subway. Results They can earn some extra money. They may also have a chance to dream of becoming famous. How was The Monkees formed and became a real band? The Monkees in 1968 (left to right): Micky Dolenz, Peter Tork, Mike Nesmith & Davy Jones beginning of the band It began as a TV show. style of the performance They played jokes on each other as well as played music. first music and jokes Most of them were based loosely on the band called “The Beatles”. development of the band They became more serious about their work and started to play their own instruments and write their own songs like a real band. They produced their own records and started touring and playing their own music. changes of the band The band broke up in about 1970, but reunited in the mid-1980s. They produced a new record in 1996, which was a celebration of their time as a real band. 4. Reading and understanding difficult sentences As you have read the text times, you can surely tell which sentences are difficult to understand. Now put your questions concerning the difficult points to me. IV. Closing down Closing down by doing exercises To end the lesson you are to do the comprehending exercises No. 1, 2, 3 and 4. Closing down by having a discussion Do you think the TV organizers were right to call “The Monkees” a band when they did not sing or write their own songs? Why? For reference: I don’t think the TV organizers were right to call “The Monkees” a band when they did not sing or write their own songs because singing and writing its own songs was the basis of a band. Do you agree that the jokes were more important than the music for this band? Give a reason. For reference: Yes. I think it is the jokes that really attract more fans. No. I think the purpose of forming a band is getting people to enjoy the spirit of music. It’s more important than playing jokes just to make people laugh. Closing down by retelling the form of the band The Monkees. I shall write some key words and expressions on the board. You are to retell the form of the band according to these words. For reference: begin as a TV show, the TV organizers, look for, put an advertisement in a newspaper, use actors for the other members of the band, pretend to sing Period 2: A sample lesson plan for Learning about Language (The Attributive Clause (in/ for/ with/ by+which/ whom). Aims To help students learn about the Attributive Clause with a preposition in front. To help students discover and learn to use some useful words and expressions. To help students discover and learn to use some useful structures. Procedures I. Warming up Warming up by discovering useful words and expressions Turn to page 35 and do exercises No. 1, 2 and 3 first. Check your answers against your classmates’. II. Learning about grammar 1.Reading and thinking Turn to page 34 and read with me the text of THE BAND THAT WASN’t. As you read on, pay attention to The Attributive Clause (in/ for/ with/ by+which/ whom), that is, the attributive clauses with a preposition ahead of the relative pronoun shown in the sentences. For reference: The musicians of whom the band was formed played jokes on each other as well as played music. However, after a year or so in which they became more serious about their work, “The Monkees” started to play their own instruments and write their own songs like a real band. 2.Doing exercises No. 1 and 2 on page 35 Turn to page 34. Look at the two sentences: The musicians of whom the band was formed played jokes on each other as well as played music. However, after a year or so in which they became more serious about their work, “The Monkees” started to play their own instruments and write their own songs like a real band. Pay attention to the structure: preposition + relative pronoun. Usually only two relative pronouns --- which and whom--- can be used in the Attributive Clause, with a preposition put before the clause. That can’t be used. Look at the screen. Here are more examples on this kind of structure. 1.This is the reason for which he left his hometown. (=why) 2.I’ll never forget the day on which we stayed together. (=when) 3.This is the girl from whom I learned the news. 4.The person to whom I spoke just now is the manager that I told you about. 5.I’ll show you a store in which you may buy all that you need.(=where) 6.I don’t like the way in which you laughed at her.(=that) Now go on to do Exercise No. 2 on page 36, that is, to sort out the sentences. III. Ready used materials for The Attributive Clause (in/ for/ with/ by+which/ whom) In formal styles we often put a preposition before the relative pronouns which and whom: The rate at which a material heats up depends on its chemical composition. In the novel by Peters, on which the film is based, the main character is a teenager. An actor with whom Gelson had previously worked contacted him about the role. Her many friends, among whom I like to be considered, gave her encouragement. Notice that after a preposition you can’t use who in place of whom, and you can’t use that or zero relative pronoun either: Is it right that politicians should make important decisions without consulting the public to whom they are accountable? (not --- the public to who they are accountable.) The valley in which the town lies is heavily polluted. (not --- The valley in that the town...) Arnold tried to gauge the speed at which they were traveling. (not --- the speed at they were traveling.) In informal English we usually put the preposition at the end in attributive clauses rather than at the beginning: The office which Graham led the way to was filled with books. Jim’s footballing ability, which he was noted for, had been encouraged by his parents. The playground wasn’t used by those children who it was built for. In this case we prefer who rather than whom (although whom is used in formal contexts). In restrictive attributive clauses we can also use that or zero relative pronoun instead of who or which (e.g. ...the children (that) it was built for). If the verb in attributive clauses is a two-or-three-word verb (e.g. come across, fill in, go through, look after, look up to, put up with, take on) we don’t usually put the preposition at the beginning: 	Your essay is one of those (which/that) I’ll go through tomorrow. (rather than...through which I’ll go tomorrow.) 	She is one of the few people (who/that) I look up to. (not ... to whom I look up.) In formal written English, we often prefer to use of which rather than whose to talk about things: A huge amount of oil was spilled, the effects of which are still being felt. (or...whose effects are still being felt.) The end of the war, the anniversary of which is on the 16th of November, will be commemorated in cities throughout the country. (or...whose anniversary is on...) Note that we can’t use of which in place of whose in the patterns described in Unit 71B: Dorothy was able to switch between German, Polish and Russian, all of which she spoke fluently. (not..,all whose she spoke...) We can sometimes use that...of in place of of which. This is less formal than of which and whose, and is mainly used in spoken English: The school that she is head of is closing down. (or The school of which she is head...) Whose can come after a preposition in attributive clauses. However, it is more natural to put the preposition at the end in less formal contexts and in spoken English: We were grateful to Mr. Marks, in whose car we had traveled home. (or...whose car we had traveled home in.) I now turn to Freud, from whose work the following quotation is taken. (or...whose work the following quotation is taken from.) IV. Closing down by doing exercises: Join the sentence halves using which or whom after an appropriate preposition. (A) I would never have finished the work. It was primarily written. We know nothing. They got a good view. He learned how to play chess. Dennis scored three goals in the final. She was born. It was discovered. 1.They climbed up to the top of a large rock. 2. I would like to thank my tutor. 3. She has now moved back to the house on Long Island. 4. The star is to be named after Patrick Jenks. S. This is the ball. 6. He is now able to beat his father. 7. The book is enjoyed by adults as well as children. 8. There are still many things in our solar system. Key for reference: 1.They climbed up to the top of a large rock, from which they got a good view. 2. I would like to thank my tutor, without whom I would never have finished the work. 3. She has now moved back to the house on Long Island, in which she was born. 4. The star is to be named after Patrick Jenks, by whom it was discovered. S. This is the ball. Dennis scored three goals in the final. 6. He is now able to beat his father, from whom he learned how to play chess. 7. The book is enjoyed by adults as well as children, about whom it was primarily written. 8. There are still many things in our solar system, about which we know nothing. Are these correct or appropriate? If they are, put a√. If they are not, give a reason, correct them and give alternatives if you can. (A) I. It's a piece of jewelry across which I came in an antique shop. --- which I came across in an antique shop. (‘came across’ is a two-word verb.) 2. The extra work which she took on was starting to affect her health. 3. My mother, after whom I looked for over 20 years, died last year. 4. The people whom I work with are all very friendly. 5. Some of the criticisms with which they had to put up were very unfair. 6. He had many friends with whom he had a regular correspondence. 7. The woman to who he is engaged comes from Poland. 8. The forms which I had to fill in were very complicated. Rewrite these sentences so that they are more appropriate for formal written English. Use preposition + which or preposition + whose, as appropriate. (B) I.	Tom Sims, whose car the weapons were found in, has been arrested. Torn Sims, in whose car the weapons were found, has been arrested. 2. Tom Ham, whose novel the TV series is based on, will appear in the first episode. 3. Dr Jackson owns the castle whose grounds the main road passes through. 4. Tessa Parsons is now managing director of Simons, the company that she was once a secretary in. 5. Allowing the weapons to be sold is an action that the Government should be ashamed of. 6. The dragonfly is an insect that we know very little of. Period 3: A sample lesson plan for Using Language Aims To read the story about Freddy and then enjoy and understand Beatles’ songs. To use the language by reading, listening, speaking and writing. Procedures I. Warming up by listening and writing Turn to page 37 and read these sentences before listening to the tape. Then listen to the tape and decide true or false. II. Guided reading Reading and translating Read more about Freddy’s life and translate it into Chinese paragraph by paragraph. Reading and underlining Next you are to read and underline all the useful expressions or collocations in the passage. Copy them to your notebook after class as homework. Collocations from Freddy’s life become famous, visit Britain on a tour, wait for hours to get tickets for the concerts, be confident, enjoy singing and all the congratulations, the most exciting experience, sing in a TV program called “Top of the Pops, wear an expensive suit, give a performance to a TV camera, go wrong, not go out without being followed everywhere, wear sunglasses, hide in railway stations, one’s personal life, become too painful for sb., pack one’s bags Doing exercises Now you are going to do exercises No. 3, 4 and 5 on page 38 following the article. Ex3: Here are the incorrect sentences which should be crossed out. Freddy and his band always loved being pop stars. His favorite program was “Top of the Pops”. Things went wrong because Freddy and his band hid themselves. They realized they had to go because they were painful. Exercise 4 Answer these questions: This is an open question by which students are asked about their opinions. Answers may vary. Answers may vary but there is information in the reading passage that may include: --- becoming rich; --- doing a job you want to do; --- having many fans; --- people enjoying your music. Answers may vary but information may include: --- peaceful and quiet; --- a private life away from crowds; --- a personal life which others do not discuss. Exercise 5: The main idea is No. 3. This is a story about a band that became famous and did not like it. Only No. 3 best summarizes the main idea, while all the others reflect just part of the main idea. At first, Freddy and his band wanted to be famous, but when he became famous, they were always being followed wherever they went, which they found painful. III. Guided writing 1.Writing a letter for advice Please turn to page 38 writing. Let’s read the instructions. You and your friends want to start your own band. However, you have never played in a band before. You write an e-mail to Freddy for his advice. The e-mail is started for you, but you have to finish it. You’d better do some brainstorming in small groups before writing your letters. You should follow the procedure for brainstorming and outlining introduced in Module 1 Unit 2. Writing tips: In groups discuss some questions you would like to ask Freddy. Make a list of them and choose the best questions. Share your ideas with another pair; discuss all questions and then decide which ones you want to ask Freddy. Use each question to start a new paragraph. Write your question first; then add extra information to show Freddy why you need help. Finish the letter politely and thank Freddy for his help. 2.Reading Freddy’s reply Let’s read Freddy’s reply and answer the questions: --- How was Freddy’s band formed? --- What advice does Freddy give? 3.Writing a note and a paragraph Please turn to page 74. Now in pairs you are going to decide on the best way to tell a foreign friend about one kind of Chinese folk music. What do you think they need to know before they can enjoy it? Why do you like it? Who are your favorite singers? Discuss it with your partner and write notes to remind you of your most important ideas. Then write a paragraph telling your foreign friend about the type of Chinese folk music you have chosen. Use a dictionary and other reference books to help you. IV. Further applying Finding information Go to the library to read or get online to search in order to find more information on music and musicians. Take notes of your findings and report them to your group mates next Monday morning. V. Closing down by filling a form Make use of the text and others to fill in the form below. How do people form a band Members Reasons Places Forms Results Closing down by describing a band To end this period, I am going to have two of you to describe to the class a band whom you appreciates. Who’d like to speak first? Part Two: Teaching Resources (第二部分:教学资源) Section 1: A text structure analysis of THE BAND THAT WASN’T I. Type of writing and summary of the idea Type of writing This is a piece of narrative writing. Main idea of the passage The band The Monkees was formed in quite a different way. It started as a TV show, with musicians played jokes on each other as well as played music, based loosely on the band called The Beatles. As time went on, their attractive performances gained fiercely support from their fans. With their own particular style of performing their band at last became very popular in the USA. Topic sentence of 1st paragraph Have you ever wanted to be a famous singer or musician? Topic sentence of 2nd paragraph Most musicians meet and form a band because they like to play music. Topic sentence of 3rd paragraph However, there was one band that started in a different way. Top sentence of 4th paragraph Their attractive performances were copied by other groups and their fans supported them fiercely. II. A tree diagram Dreaming of being a famous musician or singer. How musicians form bands. How The Monkees got their start. How The Monkees became serious about the music business. III. A retold passage of the text 1. A possible version: Being a famous singer or musician may be the dream of many people. Becoming a member of a band may help you realize the dream. But just how can people form a band? Most musicians often meet and form a band for they are congenial with each other. High school students may also form a band to practice music together or sometimes play in the street to passers-by to earn some extra money, which is also a chance to realize their dreams of becoming famous. However, There was a band which was started in quite a different way. The musicians of whom the band was formed played jokes on each other and played music, loosely based on the Beatles. Their exciting performances were copied by other groups and were fiercely supported by their fans. That band was The Monkees. After a year or so, The Monkees became more serious of their work, playing their own instruments and writing their own music. Though it broke up in 1970, it reunited in the mid-1980s and is still popular today. Section 2: Background information on music, musicians and the band The Monkees I. Different types of music: Folk music It has been passed down from one generation to another. At first it was never written down. People learned the songs from their families, relatives, neighbors and friends in the same village. These songs were about the country life, the seasons, animals and plants, and about love and sadness in people’s lives. Pop music It is a kind of modern music with a strong beat and not of lasting interest, especially just favored for a short time by younger people • Rock ’n’ Roll It is also called rock and roll, a kind of modern music with strong beat, played loudly on electrical instruments, in which the singer repeats the same few simple words. Jazz Jazz was born in the USA around 1890. It came from work songs sung by black people and had its roots in Africa. Jazz started developing in the 1920s in the southern states. Soon it was played by white musicians, too, and reached other parts of the USA. African music It plays an important part in people’s lives, especially for work, and at festivals and weddings, when people dance all night long. Indian music It’s not written down. There is a basic pattern of notes which the musician follows. But a lot of modern music is also written. India also produces films with music, and millions of records are sold every year. Music in the Caribbean The slaves who were brought from Africa developed their own kind of music. West Indians make musical instruments out of large oil cans. They hit different parts of the drum with hammers to produce different notes. This type of music has become very famous in Britain and is very good music to dance to. II. Famous musicians: Joseph Haydn(1732-1809)was an Austrian composer and is known as “the father of the symphony”. Other composers had written symphonies before Haydn, but he changed the symphony into a long piece for a large orchestra. He was born in a village in Austria, the son of a peasant. He had a beautiful singing voice. After studying music in Vienna, Haydn went to work at the court of a prince in eastern Austria, where he became director of music. Having worked there for 30 years, Haydn moved to London, where he was very successful. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)was a composer, possibly the greatest musical genius of all time. He only lived 35 years and he composed more than 600 pieces of music. Mozart was born in Salzburg, Austria. His father Leopold was a musician and orchestra conductor. Wolfgang had musical talent from a very early age. He learned to play the harpsichord in a concert for the Empress of Austria. By the time he was 14, Mozart had composed many pieces for the harpsichord, piano and violin, as well as for orchestras. While he was still a teenager, Mozart was already a big star and toured Europe giving concerts. Haydn met Mozart in 1781 and was very impressed with him. “He is the greatest composer the world has known,” he said. The two were friends until Mozart’s death in 1791. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)was born in Bonn, Germany. He showed musical talent when he was very young, and learned to play the violin and piano from his father, who was a singer. Mozart met Beethoven and was impressed by him. “He will give something wonderful to the world,” he said. Beethoven met Haydn in 1791, but was not impressed by the older man. After they had known each other for many years, Beethoven said, “He is a good composer, but he has taught me nothing.” However, it was Haydn who encouraged Beethoven to move to Vienna. Beethoven became very popular in the Austrian capital and stayed there for the rest of his life. As he grew older, he began to go deaf. He became completely deaf during the last years of his life, but he continued composing. III. Musical instrument 乐器 saxophone electrical equipment piano guitar flute V. What are the functions of music? •Make things more lively and interesting •Make things better for people to understand and enjoy •Express people’s feeling •Make people feel good •Help people forget their pain •Attract people’s attention •help people to remember things well VI. The introduction of the band The Monkees The Monkees were a four-person band who appeared in an American television series of the same name, which ran on NBC from 1966 to 1968. The Monkees were formed in 1965 in Los Angeles, California and disbanded in 1970. At their peak they were one of the most popular musical acts of their time. Several reunions of the original lineup have taken place. The first reunion lasted from 1986 to 1989, and a second regrouping took place between 1996-1997. The Monkees last worked together for a brief period in 2001. Section 3: Words and expressions from Unit 5 THE BAND THAT WASN’T I. Words for Reading classical adj. (of music)put together and arranged(composed) with serious artistic intentions; having an attraction that lasts over a long period of time(as opposed to popular or folk music)(音乐)古典的Bach and Beethoven wrote classical music. the classical music of India/ the classical symphony roll vt.&vi. 1. to (cause to) move along by turning over and over(使)滚动We rolled the barrels of oil onto the ship. Tears were rolling down her cheeks. 2. to move steadily and smoothly along(as) on wheels(车轮)滚动;转动The train rolled slowly into the station. The waves rolled over the sand. 3. (of a ship)to swing from side to side with the movement of the waves摇摆;摇晃The ship rolled so heavily that we were all sick.4. keep the ball rolling: to keep things active and moving(使事情,工作等)继续进行下去;不松懈5. set the ball rolling: to be the first to do something, hoping that others will follow带动;带头(希望他人跟随)I’ll sing a song first, just to set the ball rolling. folk adj. of, connected with, or being music or any other art that has grown up among working and/or country people as an important part of their way of living and belongs to a particular area, trade, etc., or that has been made in modern times as a copy of this(音乐;艺术)民间的;民俗的folk music/ folk songs/ Chinese folk art/ give a folk concert/a folk singer jazz n.爵士音乐traditional jazz/ modern jazz/ jazz music/ a jazz band musician n.音乐家a fine musician dream n. 1. a group of thoughts, images, or feelings experienced during sleep梦 2. sth. imaged, not real, but believed in or greatly and hopefully desired理想;梦想 v.梦见;梦想dream of/about (doing) sth./ dream a dream clap vi. 鼓掌Clap one’s hand in time to the music/ clap sb. on sth./ clap sb. on the back/clap eyes on sb. be honest with = be frank with/ to tell you the truth form vt.&n.(使)组成;形成form some ideas or opinion about sth./ form a nation/ form a line/ form good habits/ in the form of/ in form/ fill in the form/ take the form of passer-by n. 过路人;行人passers-by/ ask the passer-by earn vt. 1. to get (money) by working赚;挣(钱)He earns $10000 a year(by writing stories) get(sth. that one deserves)because of one’s qualities博得;赢得He earned the title of “The Great” by his victories in the war. earn money/ earn one’s living / earn sb. success loosely adv. 宽松的;松散的loosely speaking/ loosely translated advertisement n. also ad--a notice of sth. for sale, service offered, job position to be filled, room to let, etc., as in a newspaper, painted on a wall, or made as a film广告the advertisement page/ advertisement for sb./sth./ put an advertisement actor n. 男演员;行动者actor and actress/ an excellent actor attractive adj. having the power to attract有吸引力的The idea is very attractive. sound attractive/ at attractive price fan n. 1. 扇子turn the fan on 2. a very keen follower or supporter, as of a sport, performing art, or famous person迷;狂热者fan club instrument n. 工具;器械;乐器play an instrument/ the instruments of the orchestra/ a ship’s instruments II. Words for Learning about Language hit n. (演出等)成功;打击a direct hit on an enemy ship/ a final score of two hits and six misses/ a hit with everyone/ His film is quite a hit/ They sang their latest hit./ make a hit sort n.& vt. 种类;类别;分类;整理the sort of person I really dislike/ What sort of paint are you using?/ sort sth. out (into) sth./ sort through sth. III. Words for Using Language afterwards adv. later; after that以后;后来Let’s go to the theatre first and eat afterwards. perform vt.& vi. 1. to do; carry out(a piece of work)实行;做The doctor performed the operation. 2. to fulfill (a promise, order, etc.) 履行;执行(允诺,命令)3. to give, act or show(a play, a part(role)in a play, a piece of music, tricks, etc.) esp. before the public表演 perform a task/ perform one’s duty/ perform an operation to save one’s life/ perform the piano/perform skillfully on the flute/ perform live on television/ perform a ceremony performance n.表演;履行faithful in the performance of one’s duty/ the evening performance/give a performance of “Hamlet”/ in performance stick vi 1. to (cause to) be fixed with a sticky substance粘贴;张贴Stick a piece of paper over the old address and write the new one on it. stick to one’s fingers/ stick a stamp on a letter 2. stick to: to refuse to leave or change/stick up a note on the note-board/ stick the pen behind the ear坚持;固守stick to one’s plan/to stick to one’s promise ability n. power and skill, esp. to do, think, act, make, etc.(尤指工作, 思考,行动,创造等)能力 a machine with the ability to copy with large loads/ have the ability to do the work/ a woman of great ability/ have a great musical ability saying n. 话;俗话‘More haste, less speed,’ as the saying goes. reputation n. (an) opinion held by others(about someone or sth.); the degree to which one is well thought of名誉;名声: a school with an excellent reputation/ a good reputation as a doctor/ have a reputation for laziness/ ruin sb.’s reputation/ make a reputation for oneself/ live up to one’s reputation unknown adj.& n. 不知道的;未知的人或物 unknown forces/ an unknown actor/ unknown to sb./ a journey into the unknown ·88· 
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